Abstract

Technological improvements, such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), have revolutionized optical transmission, boosting the development and worldwide deployment of the Internet. Similar progress has not yet impacted the routing layer, as current IP routing technology struggles to deliver the necessary bandwidth at competitive costs. Hybrid electro-optical architectures, where dynamical optical circuit switching is combined with legacy packet routing, have been introduced in the past few years as promising solutions to reduce costs at the IP layer and to deliver new revenue-generating services and applications. Most of the architectures currently proposed have focused on end-to-end lightpath provisioning, coordinated through a centralized management plane. In this paper we propose optical IP switching (OIS), a hybrid electro-optical network architecture that combines IP routing and wavelength switching, using a distributed decision-making process. We report technical and economic analysis, based on simulations obtained through real traffic traces and routing tables, that compare our distributed model to an opaque IP-over-WDM and centralized, transparent overlay models. We also report testbed results that analyze the effect of dynamic transparent switching operation on the TCP and UDP transport protocols. The results obtained show that distributed provisioning based on local traffic analysis can be feasible, although more work is required to evaluate the efficacy of optimization techniques on distributed network models.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Optical IP switching for dynamic traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” in Proc. of the Optical Network Design and Modeling Conf., 2007, pp. 309–318.
  2. M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Feasibility of flow-based optical provisioning in GEANT,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK3.
  3. G. L. Jones, W. Forysiak, J. H. B. Nijhof, “Economic benefits of all-optical cross connects and multi-haul DWDM systems for European national networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper WH2.
  4. P. Ferreira, W. Lehr, L. McKnight, “Optical networks and the future of broadband services,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 741–758, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Jones, L. Ong, M. A. Lazer, “Creating an intelligent optical network worldwide interoperability demonstration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S4–S11, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+Optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Weichenberg, V. Chan, M. Medard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, 2006, pp. 1–6.
  10. T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, “DRAGON: a framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Szegedi, Z. Lakatos, J. Spath, “Signaling architectures and recovery time scaling for grid applications in IST project MUPBED,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 74–82, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Gerstel, “IP and optical integration in dynamic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OML7.
  14. P. Newman, G. Minshall, T. L. Lyon, “IP switching-ATM under IP,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.
  16. K. Papagiannaki, N. Taft, S. Bhattacharya, P. Thiran, K. Salamatian, C. Diot, “On the feasibility of identifying elephants in Internet backbone traffic,” Sprint ATL, Sprint Labs, 2001.
  17. L. G. Roberts, “The next generation of IP-flow routing,” in Proc. of SSGRR Int. Conf., 2003.
  18. M. Ruffini, “Optical IP switching,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College, 2008.
  19. B. Quoitin, S. Uhlig, “Modeling the routing of an autonomous system with C-BGP,” IEEE Networks, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 12–19, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.
  21. M. Ruffini, D. Kilpler, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMG2.
  22. D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, Oct. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.
  24. E. Kohler, “The click modular router,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, 2000.

2006

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, “DRAGON: a framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, 2006.
[CrossRef]

P. Szegedi, Z. Lakatos, J. Spath, “Signaling architectures and recovery time scaling for grid applications in IST project MUPBED,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 74–82, 2006.
[CrossRef]

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+Optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Quoitin, S. Uhlig, “Modeling the routing of an autonomous system with C-BGP,” IEEE Networks, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 12–19, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

J. D. Jones, L. Ong, M. A. Lazer, “Creating an intelligent optical network worldwide interoperability demonstration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S4–S11, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Ferreira, W. Lehr, L. McKnight, “Optical networks and the future of broadband services,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 741–758, 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Newman, G. Minshall, T. L. Lyon, “IP switching-ATM under IP,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Aitken, P.

T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.

Bernstein, G.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, S.

K. Papagiannaki, N. Taft, S. Bhattacharya, P. Thiran, K. Salamatian, C. Diot, “On the feasibility of identifying elephants in Internet backbone traffic,” Sprint ATL, Sprint Labs, 2001.

Bodamer, S.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Bollenz, B.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Carle, G.

T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.

Chan, V.

G. Weichenberg, V. Chan, M. Medard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, 2006, pp. 1–6.

Chien, A. A.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Claise, B.

T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

DeFanti, T. A.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Dietz, T.

T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.

Diot, C.

K. Papagiannaki, N. Taft, S. Bhattacharya, P. Thiran, K. Salamatian, C. Diot, “On the feasibility of identifying elephants in Internet backbone traffic,” Sprint ATL, Sprint Labs, 2001.

Doyle, L.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Feasibility of flow-based optical provisioning in GEANT,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK3.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Optical IP switching for dynamic traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” in Proc. of the Optical Network Design and Modeling Conf., 2007, pp. 309–318.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilpler, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMG2.

Dressler, F.

T. Dietz, F. Dressler, G. Carle, B. Claise, P. Aitken, “Information model for packet sampling exports,” IETF RFC, Mar. 2009.

Ellisman, M.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, P.

P. Ferreira, W. Lehr, L. McKnight, “Optical networks and the future of broadband services,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 741–758, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Figuerola, S.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

Forysiak, W.

G. L. Jones, W. Forysiak, J. H. B. Nijhof, “Economic benefits of all-optical cross connects and multi-haul DWDM systems for European national networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper WH2.

Furst, C.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, “IP and optical integration in dynamic networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OML7.

Gunkel, M.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Haustein, H.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Imajuku, W.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+Optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2005.
[CrossRef]

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Jabbari, B.

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, “DRAGON: a framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. L.

G. L. Jones, W. Forysiak, J. H. B. Nijhof, “Economic benefits of all-optical cross connects and multi-haul DWDM systems for European national networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper WH2.

Jones, J. D.

J. D. Jones, L. Ong, M. A. Lazer, “Creating an intelligent optical network worldwide interoperability demonstration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S4–S11, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Junyent, G.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

Kenny, E.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

Kilpler, D.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilpler, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMG2.

Kohler, E.

E. Kohler, “The click modular router,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, 2000.

Lakatos, Z.

P. Szegedi, Z. Lakatos, J. Spath, “Signaling architectures and recovery time scaling for grid applications in IST project MUPBED,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 74–82, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lazer, M. A.

J. D. Jones, L. Ong, M. A. Lazer, “Creating an intelligent optical network worldwide interoperability demonstration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S4–S11, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Lehman, T.

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, “DRAGON: a framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, G.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Lehr, W.

P. Ferreira, W. Lehr, L. McKnight, “Optical networks and the future of broadband services,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 741–758, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Leppla, R.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Lord, A.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Lyon, T. L.

P. Newman, G. Minshall, T. L. Lyon, “IP switching-ATM under IP,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Martensson, J.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

McKnight, L.

P. Ferreira, W. Lehr, L. McKnight, “Optical networks and the future of broadband services,” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 741–758, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Medard, M.

G. Weichenberg, V. Chan, M. Medard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, 2006, pp. 1–6.

Minshall, G.

P. Newman, G. Minshall, T. L. Lyon, “IP switching-ATM under IP,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Newman, P.

P. Newman, G. Minshall, T. L. Lyon, “IP switching-ATM under IP,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Nijhof, J. H. B.

G. L. Jones, W. Forysiak, J. H. B. Nijhof, “Economic benefits of all-optical cross connects and multi-haul DWDM systems for European national networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper WH2.

O’Mahony, D.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilpler, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMG2.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Feasibility of flow-based optical provisioning in GEANT,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK3.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Optical IP switching for dynamic traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” in Proc. of the Optical Network Design and Modeling Conf., 2007, pp. 309–318.

Okamoto, S.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Oki, E.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+Optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, 2005.
[CrossRef]

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1254–1262, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ong, L.

J. D. Jones, L. Ong, M. A. Lazer, “Creating an intelligent optical network worldwide interoperability demonstration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S4–S11, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Padopoulos, P.

N. Taesombut, F. Uyeda, A. A. Chien, L. Smarr, T. A. DeFanti, P. Padopoulos, J. Leigh, M. Ellisman, J. Orcutt, “The OptIPuter: high-performance, QoS-guaranteed network service for emerging e-science applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 38–45, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Papagiannaki, K.

K. Papagiannaki, N. Taft, S. Bhattacharya, P. Thiran, K. Salamatian, C. Diot, “On the feasibility of identifying elephants in Internet backbone traffic,” Sprint ATL, Sprint Labs, 2001.

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Quoitin, B.

B. Quoitin, S. Uhlig, “Modeling the routing of an autonomous system with C-BGP,” IEEE Networks, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 12–19, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Rajagopalan, B.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Reijs, V.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

Roberts, L. G.

L. G. Roberts, “The next generation of IP-flow routing,” in Proc. of SSGRR Int. Conf., 2003.

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, “Optical IP switching,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College, 2008.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilpler, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMG2.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Optical IP switching for dynamic traffic engineering in next-generation optical networks,” in Proc. of the Optical Network Design and Modeling Conf., 2007, pp. 309–318.

M. Ruffini, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Feasibility of flow-based optical provisioning in GEANT,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK3.

Saha, D.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Salamatian, K.

K. Papagiannaki, N. Taft, S. Bhattacharya, P. Thiran, K. Salamatian, C. Diot, “On the feasibility of identifying elephants in Internet backbone traffic,” Sprint ATL, Sprint Labs, 2001.

Sánchez, A.

A. Sánchez, S. Figuerola, G. Junyent, E. Kenny, V. Reijs, M. Ruffini, “A user provisioning tool for EoMPLS services based on UCLPv1.5,” in Proc. of the TERENA Networking Conf., 2007.

Schupke, D.

M. Gunkel, R. Leppla, M. Wade, A. Lord, D. Schupke, G. Lehmann, C. Furst, S. Bodamer, B. Bollenz, H. Haustein, H. Nakajima, J. Martensson, “A cost model for the WDM layer,” in Proc. of Photonics in Switching Conf., 2006.

Shimazaki, D.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Global IP forecast for business and consumer traffic for the years 2005–2011 (source Cisco Systems Inc., 2007).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overall optical IP switching architecture: IP and OIS functions are closely integrated in the network layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Prefix-based aggregation mechanism: traffic statistics are categorized, first depending on source and destination interfaces, and within each cell, on the destination prefix.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Path creation process: the routing table of the path source is updated to route selected prefixes into dynamically allocated optical paths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Path extension process, which allows adding progressively more nodes to the transparent cut-through paths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Logical layout topology of the pan-European GÉANT network.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the OIS versus an overlay architecture, showing the switching ability and channel occupancy when transparent switching is operated within a single domain.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between the OIS versus an overlay architecture when transparent switching is operated across multiple domains.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Abstract node models of the opaque and transparent architectures used for the cost analysis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cost comparison between the opaque IP-over-WDM and the transparent OIS and overlay architectures.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cost comparison considering a multidomain environment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Network architecture of the OIS testbed.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Packet arrival versus time of the TCP (Reno) packets received at the destination node.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

STOP_flow signaling initiating after the extension signaling operations.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Default Simulation Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Costs Considered for the Network Devices

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Comparison Between Overlay and OIS Network Models

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T gap = B R [ s ] .
i σ i > T gap .
R > B i σ i .