Abstract

We investigate the survivable traffic grooming problem with inverse multiplexing in telecommunication mesh networks employing next-generation SONET/SDH and WDM. With the support of virtual concatenation, a connection of any bandwidth can be provisioned as several subconnections (i.e., inverse multiplexed) over diverse paths. Therefore, it is important to efficiently groom and protect these low-speed subconnections onto high-capacity wavelength channels, considering the typical constraints. We propose and investigate the characteristics of survivable multipath traffic grooming with protection-at-connection and protection-at-lightpath levels for grooming connections with shared pro- tection, subject to the constraints of the inverse-multiplexing factor, differential-delay constraint, and grooming ports. Since this problem is NP-complete, we propose effective heuristics using a novel analytical model. Our results show that (1) the network performance, in metrics of bandwidth blocking ratio and resource overbuild, can be notably improved by exploiting the inverse-multiplexing capability, (2) tight constraints have negative impact on performance, (3) protection-at-connection performs better in most cases of multipath provisioning when the constraints are not too tight, and (4) protection-at-lightpath achieves better performance when the number of grooming ports is moderate or small.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.
  2. “Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH),” ITU-T Recommendation G.707, Apr. 2002.
  3. S. Huang, “Design and analysis of survivable multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis, CA, Dec. 2009.
  4. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.
  7. K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Yao, B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable traffic grooming with path protection at the connection level in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, pp. 2846–2853, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Mesh Networks. New York: Springer, Aug. 2005.
  10. H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architecture and challenges,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, Mar. 2003.
  12. M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Huang, R. Dutta, “Dynamic traffic grooming: the changing role of traffic grooming,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32–50, 2006.
  14. F. Farahmand, X. Huang, J. P. Jue, “Efficient online traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks with drop-and-continue node architecture,” in First Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'04), San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 180–189.
  15. C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, C. M. Assi, A. Shami, G. Ellinas, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of low-speed unicast/multicast traffic demands in mesh-based WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 681–693, Feb. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. V. Saradhi, C. S. R. Murthy, “Dynamic establishment of segmented protection paths in single and multi-fiber WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77–98, Jan. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Roy, B. Mukherjee, “Degraded-service-aware multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWA4.
  23. N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78
  24. N. Ghani, S. Park, “Multi-tiered service survivability in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 13, pp. 79–92, Feb. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.
  27. S. Huang, B. Mukherjee, C. Martel, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conf. on Computer Communications, Phoenix, AZ, 2008, pp. 191–195.

2008 (3)

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, S. Park, “Multi-tiered service survivability in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 13, pp. 79–92, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, C. M. Assi, A. Shami, G. Ellinas, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of low-speed unicast/multicast traffic demands in mesh-based WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 681–693, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, R. Dutta, “Dynamic traffic grooming: the changing role of traffic grooming,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32–50, 2006.

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. V. Saradhi, C. S. R. Murthy, “Dynamic establishment of segmented protection paths in single and multi-fiber WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77–98, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Yao, B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable traffic grooming with path protection at the connection level in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, pp. 2846–2853, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (6)

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architecture and challenges,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, Mar. 2003.

Ali, M.

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

Ali, M. A.

Assi, C.

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

Assi, C. M.

Baruffaldi, A.

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Benhaddou, D.

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

Chen, B.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chiang, M.

J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.

Cinkler, T.

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, O.

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, R. Dutta, “Dynamic traffic grooming: the changing role of traffic grooming,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32–50, 2006.

Ellinas, G.

Farahmand, F.

F. Farahmand, X. Huang, J. P. Jue, “Efficient online traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks with drop-and-continue node architecture,” in First Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'04), San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 180–189.

Ghani, N.

N. Ghani, S. Park, “Multi-tiered service survivability in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 13, pp. 79–92, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

Hadjiantonis, A.

Han, H.

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Haque, A.

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

He, J.

J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.

Ho, P.

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hollot, C. V.

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, R. Dutta, “Dynamic traffic grooming: the changing role of traffic grooming,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32–50, 2006.

S. Huang, “Design and analysis of survivable multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis, CA, Dec. 2009.

S. Huang, B. Mukherjee, C. Martel, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conf. on Computer Communications, Phoenix, AZ, 2008, pp. 191–195.

Huang, X.

F. Farahmand, X. Huang, J. P. Jue, “Efficient online traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks with drop-and-continue node architecture,” in First Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'04), San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 180–189.

Huo, W.

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

F. Farahmand, X. Huang, J. P. Jue, “Efficient online traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks with drop-and-continue node architecture,” in First Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'04), San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 180–189.

Khalil, A.

Martel, C.

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, B. Mukherjee, C. Martel, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conf. on Computer Communications, Phoenix, AZ, 2008, pp. 191–195.

Mukherjee, B.

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architecture and challenges,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, Mar. 2003.

K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Mesh Networks. New York: Springer, Aug. 2005.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

R. Roy, B. Mukherjee, “Degraded-service-aware multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWA4.

S. Huang, B. Mukherjee, C. Martel, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conf. on Computer Communications, Phoenix, AZ, 2008, pp. 191–195.

Murthy, C. S. R.

C. V. Saradhi, C. S. R. Murthy, “Dynamic establishment of segmented protection paths in single and multi-fiber WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77–98, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Ou, C.

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

N. Ghani, S. Park, “Multi-tiered service survivability in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 13, pp. 79–92, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Pattayina, A.

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Rai, S.

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

Rexford, J.

J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.

Rouskas, G. N.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

R. Roy, B. Mukherjee, “Degraded-service-aware multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWA4.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Saradhi, C. V.

C. V. Saradhi, C. S. R. Murthy, “Dynamic establishment of segmented protection paths in single and multi-fiber WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77–98, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Shakkottai, S.

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Shami, A.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, C. M. Assi, A. Shami, G. Ellinas, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of low-speed unicast/multicast traffic demands in mesh-based WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 681–693, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

Srikant, R.

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Suchara, M.

J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.

Tapolcai, J.

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Towsley, D.

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Verchere, D.

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

Zang, H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhu, H.

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Mesh Networks. New York: Springer, Aug. 2005.

Zhu, K.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 50–74, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architecture and challenges,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, Mar. 2003.

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Mesh Networks. New York: Springer, Aug. 2005.

Comput. Commun. (1)

C. Assi, W. Huo, A. Shami, “Multiple link failures survivability of optical networks with traffic grooming capability,” Comput. Commun., vol. 29, pp. 3900–3912, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

S. Huang, R. Dutta, “Dynamic traffic grooming: the changing role of traffic grooming,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 32–50, 2006.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (4)

M. Tornatore, A. Baruffaldi, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, A. Pattayina, “Holding-time-aware dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, Y. Xiong, C. Qiao, “Novel algorithms for shared segment protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1320–1331, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1367–1383, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical groomings switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1173–1186, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic engineering in multigranularity heterogeneous optical WDM mesh networks through dynamic traffic grooming,” IEEE Network, vol. 8, pp. 8–15, 2003.

IEEE Trans. Reliab. (1)

J. Tapolcai, P. Ho, D. Verchere, T. Cinkler, A. Haque, “A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 272–282, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (4)

S. Rai, O. Deshpande, C. Ou, C. Martel, B. Mukherjee, “Reliable multipath provisioning for high-capacity backbone mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 803–812, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

H. Han, S. Shakkottai, C. V. Hollot, R. Srikant, D. Towsley, “Multi-path TCP: a joint congestion control and routing scheme to exploit path diversity in the Internet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1260–1271, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architecture and challenges,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, Mar. 2003.

Photonic Network Commun. (2)

C. V. Saradhi, C. S. R. Murthy, “Dynamic establishment of segmented protection paths in single and multi-fiber WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77–98, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, S. Park, “Multi-tiered service survivability in next-generation SONET/SDH networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 13, pp. 79–92, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

F. Farahmand, X. Huang, J. P. Jue, “Efficient online traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks with drop-and-continue node architecture,” in First Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS'04), San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 180–189.

K. Zhu, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, Traffic Grooming in Optical WDM Mesh Networks. New York: Springer, Aug. 2005.

J. He, M. Suchara, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, “Rethinking Internet traffic management: from multiple decompositions to a practical protocol,” in Proc. of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT Conf., New York, NY, 2007, paper 17.

S. Huang, B. Mukherjee, C. Martel, “Survivable multipath provisioning with differential delay constraint in telecom mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2008. The 27th Conf. on Computer Communications, Phoenix, AZ, 2008, pp. 191–195.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

“Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH),” ITU-T Recommendation G.707, Apr. 2002.

S. Huang, “Design and analysis of survivable multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis, CA, Dec. 2009.

R. Roy, B. Mukherjee, “Degraded-service-aware multipath provisioning in telecom mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWA4.

N. Ghani, C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, D. Benhaddou, “Inverse multiplexing in multi-layer optical grooming networks,” in IEEE Sarnoff Symp. 2004, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 75–78

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified node architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Protection with f-lightpath example.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Initial configuration of example.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MP-PAL: provisioning connection c 1 ( 0 , 2 , STS 12 c , t 1 ) , c 2 ( 0 , 3 , STS 21 c , t 2 ) , and c 3 ( 4 , 3 , STS 48 c , t 3 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MP-PAC: provisioning connection c 1 ( 0 , 2 , STS 12 c , t 1 ) , c 2 ( 0 , 3 , STS 21 c , t 2 ) , and c 3 ( 4 , 3 , STS 48 c , t 3 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analytical model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sample U.S. topology used in the study (link distance is in kilometers).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of IMF.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of DDC.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of grooming ports.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm 1. Multipath Provisioning Protection-at-Lightpath level (MP-PAL)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Algorithm 2. Multipath Provisioning Protection-at-Connection level (MP-PAC)

Equations (5)

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c i = { ( u + 1 ) × g 1 i IMF r u × g IMF r < i IMF } .
δ = { 1 IMF IMF = { 1 , 2 , 3 } 1 d a IMF = { 4 , 5 } } .
C e = { + f e < B IMF × δ B B IMF × δ f e C λ B × ( 1 w e f 1 w e ) w e f > 1 } .
C e = { + f e < B IMF × δ and f e w = 0 B f e w = 1 B × ( 1 w e f 1 w e ) w e f > 1 } .
C e = { + f e < B IMF × δ and w e f = 0 B B IMF × δ f e or w e f = 1 B × ( 1 w e f 1 w e ) w e f > 1 } .