Abstract

Network operators are migrating their networks to IP over WDM architectures. In such multilayer networks, it is necessary to define mechanisms that efficiently use the resources available from both layers in a coordinated manner. Thanks to the development of the control plane (GMPLS), it is feasible to both set up and tear down lightpaths automatically. Thus the WDM layer can now adapt its configuration to both meet a set of resource constraints and fulfill some predefined quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. To this end, we define a multilayer traffic engineering algorithm that efficiently manages the resources from both layers. This algorithm, which is based on Bayesian decision theory, finds the optimal number of label-switched paths that must be switched over the optical and electronic domains. Such an optimal value is found by trading off the QoS required by the users and the limited availability of network resources.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, Q. Wang, “Distributed nonlinear integer optimization for data-optical internetworking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1502–1513, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

J. A. Hernández, I. W. Phillips, “Weibull mixture model to characterise end-to-end Internet delay at coarse time-scales,” IEE Proc. Commun., vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 295–304, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Dutta, G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

G. Sasaki, O. Gerstel, “Minimal cost WDM/SONET rings that guarantee no blocking,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 51–57, Jan. 2000.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1995

I. Norros, “On the use of fractional Brownian motion in the theory of connectionless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 953–962, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Andersson, L.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Aracil, J.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Battiti, R.

E. Salvadori, R. Battiti, “Quality of service in IP over WDM: considering both service differentiation and transmission quality,” in 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Povo, Italy, 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1836–1840.

Berde, B.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.

Cinkler, T.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Clegg, R. G.

R. G. Clegg, “Markov-modulated on/off processes for long-range dependent Internet traffic,” arXiv.org, arXiv:0910.0144v1, Oct. 2009.

Colle, D.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Colle, S.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

De Maesschalck, D.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

de Sousa, A.

L. Gouveia, P. Patricio, A. de Sousa, R. Valadas, “MPLS over WDM network design with packet level QoS constraints based on ILP models,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Seattle, WA, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 576–586.

Demeester, P.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

Derkacz, J.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Diot, C.

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Doyle, L.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilper, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OMG2.

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta, G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta, A. Kamal, G. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers. New York: Springer, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Elwalid, A.

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, Q. Wang, “Distributed nonlinear integer optimization for data-optical internetworking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1502–1513, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Fernández Palacios, J. P.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Fernandez-Palacios, J.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Fraleigh, C.

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Gabeiras, J. E.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

García Argos, C.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2000.
[CrossRef]

G. Sasaki, O. Gerstel, “Minimal cost WDM/SONET rings that guarantee no blocking,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 51–57, Jan. 2000.

González de Dios, O.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

González de Dios, Ó.

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Gouveia, L.

L. Gouveia, P. Patricio, A. de Sousa, R. Valadas, “MPLS over WDM network design with packet level QoS constraints based on ILP models,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Seattle, WA, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 576–586.

Gunkel, M.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hernández, J. A.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hernández, I. W. Phillips, “Weibull mixture model to characterise end-to-end Internet delay at coarse time-scales,” IEE Proc. Commun., vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 295–304, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Hu, J.

J. Hu, B. Leida, “Traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in optical WDM mesh networks,” in INFOCOM 2004. 23rd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Brookline, MA, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 495–501.

Huelsermann, R.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Imajuku, W.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Inkret, R.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Inoue, I.

E. Oki, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, “Path computation element (PCE)-based traffic engineering in MPLS and GMPLS networks,” in 2007 IEEE Sarnoff Symp., Princeton, NJ, 2007, pp. 1–5.

Jaeger, M.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Jager, M.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Jiménez Chico, F. J.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kamal, A.

R. Dutta, A. Kamal, G. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers. New York: Springer, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilper, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OMG2.

Koga, M.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Leida, B.

J. Hu, B. Leida, “Traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in optical WDM mesh networks,” in INFOCOM 2004. 23rd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Brookline, MA, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 495–501.

Levrau, L.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Lievens, I.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

Lin, P. J.

E. Modiano, P. J. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, 2001.
[CrossRef]

López, V.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. López, “End-to-end quality of service provisioning in multi-layer and multi-domain networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2009.

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Maesschalck, S.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mauz, C.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Medhi, D.

M. Pioro, D. Medhi, Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks, 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

Meusburger, C.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Mikac, B.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mitra, D.

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, Q. Wang, “Distributed nonlinear integer optimization for data-optical internetworking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1502–1513, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Modiano, E.

E. Modiano, P. J. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Cho, V. R. Vemuri, B. Mukherjee, “Improved approaches for cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM ring networks: ILP formulations and single-hop and multihop connections,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1645–1653, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Norros, I.

I. Norros, “On the use of fractional Brownian motion in the theory of connectionless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 953–962, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, D.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilper, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OMG2.

Okamoto, S.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Oki, E.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, “Path computation element (PCE)-based traffic engineering in MPLS and GMPLS networks,” in 2007 IEEE Sarnoff Symp., Princeton, NJ, 2007, pp. 1–5.

Ondata, M.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Papagiannaki, K.

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Patricio, P.

L. Gouveia, P. Patricio, A. de Sousa, R. Valadas, “MPLS over WDM network design with packet level QoS constraints based on ILP models,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Seattle, WA, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 576–586.

Phillips, I. W.

J. A. Hernández, I. W. Phillips, “Weibull mixture model to characterise end-to-end Internet delay at coarse time-scales,” IEE Proc. Commun., vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 295–304, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Pickavet, M.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

Pioro, M.

M. Pioro, D. Medhi, Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks, 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

Puype, B.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

Ramaswami, R.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Rouskas, G.

R. Dutta, G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta, A. Kamal, G. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers. New York: Springer, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilper, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OMG2.

Salvadori, E.

E. Salvadori, R. Battiti, “Quality of service in IP over WDM: considering both service differentiation and transmission quality,” in 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Povo, Italy, 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1836–1840.

Sasaki, G.

G. Sasaki, O. Gerstel, “Minimal cost WDM/SONET rings that guarantee no blocking,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 51–57, Jan. 2000.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Shiomoto, K.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Oki, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, “Path computation element (PCE)-based traffic engineering in MPLS and GMPLS networks,” in 2007 IEEE Sarnoff Symp., Princeton, NJ, 2007, pp. 1–5.

Takigawa, Y.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Thiran, P.

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Valadas, R.

L. Gouveia, P. Patricio, A. de Sousa, R. Valadas, “MPLS over WDM network design with packet level QoS constraints based on ILP models,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Seattle, WA, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 576–586.

Vemuri, V. R.

Vigoureux, M.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Q.

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, Q. Wang, “Distributed nonlinear integer optimization for data-optical internetworking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1502–1513, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, N.

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

Zang, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw.

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “A Bayesian decision theory approach for the techno-economic analysis of an all-optical router (extended version),” Comput. Netw., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1916–1926, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Commun.

J. A. Hernández, I. W. Phillips, “Weibull mixture model to characterise end-to-end Internet delay at coarse time-scales,” IEE Proc. Commun., vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 295–304, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

M. Vigoureux, B. Berde, L. Andersson, T. Cinkler, L. Levrau, M. Ondata, D. Colle, J. Fernandez-Palacios, M. Jager, “Multilayer traffic engineering for GMPLS-enabled networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 44–50, 2005.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, N. Yamanaka, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, S. Okamoto, K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, “GMPLS-based photonic multilayer router (Hikari router) architecture: an overview of traffic engineering and signaling technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 96–101, Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Modiano, P. J. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, Q. Wang, “Distributed nonlinear integer optimization for data-optical internetworking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1502–1513, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

I. Norros, “On the use of fractional Brownian motion in the theory of connectionless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 953–962, Aug. 1995.
[CrossRef]

K. Papagiannaki, S. Moon, C. Fraleigh, P. Thiran, C. Diot, “Measurement and analysis of single-hop delay on an IP backbone network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 908–921, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network

R. Dutta, G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: past and future,” IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618–630, 2000.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Networks Mag.

G. Sasaki, O. Gerstel, “Minimal cost WDM/SONET rings that guarantee no blocking,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 51–57, Jan. 2000.

Opt. Switching Networking

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, O. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, J. A. Hernández, “Is multi-layer networking feasible?” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: an availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Other

V. López, “End-to-end quality of service provisioning in multi-layer and multi-domain networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2009.

M. Pioro, D. Medhi, Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks, 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

R. G. Clegg, “Markov-modulated on/off processes for long-range dependent Internet traffic,” arXiv.org, arXiv:0910.0144v1, Oct. 2009.

L. Gouveia, P. Patricio, A. de Sousa, R. Valadas, “MPLS over WDM network design with packet level QoS constraints based on ILP models,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Seattle, WA, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 576–586.

E. Salvadori, R. Battiti, “Quality of service in IP over WDM: considering both service differentiation and transmission quality,” in 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Povo, Italy, 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1836–1840.

E. Oki, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, “Path computation element (PCE)-based traffic engineering in MPLS and GMPLS networks,” in 2007 IEEE Sarnoff Symp., Princeton, NJ, 2007, pp. 1–5.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” presented at the 7th IFIP Working Conf. on Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM 2003), Budapest, Hungary, Feb. 3–5, 2003.

E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF Network Working Group Request for Comments 3945, Oct. 2004.

V. López, J. A. Hernández, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, Ó. González de Dios, “Performance evaluation of a Bayesian decisor in a multi-hop IP over WDM network scenario,” in Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

J. Hu, B. Leida, “Traffic grooming, routing, and wavelength assignment in optical WDM mesh networks,” in INFOCOM 2004. 23rd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Brookline, MA, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 495–501.

M. Ruffini, D. Kilper, D. O’Mahony, L. Doyle, “Cost study of dynamically transparent networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OMG2.

R. Dutta, A. Kamal, G. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers. New York: Springer, 2008.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multilayer-capable router. TE, traffic engineering; DB, database.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five node network. (a) Physical topology (T), (b) auxiliary graph ( T ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Path definition example.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-path scenario with three hops ( M = 3 ) and possible e2e paths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cost of routing one LSP in each path.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Solution of the optimization problem when the traffic is increasing from node 1 to node 5 ( U mean ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Solution of the heuristic algorithm when the traffic is increasing from node 1 to node 5 ( U mean ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Paths used when the traffic load increases. (a) Status point 1, (b) status point 2 (see Fig. 7).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Topologies for the experiments. (a) 6-node topology, (b) core Pan-European topology [27], (c) 15-node NSFNET topology.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Percentage of LSPs sent through the electronic or optical layer when R cost varies (NSFNET, U mean ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Number of paths used in each domain and their mean occupation when R cost varies (NSFNET, U mean ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Number of paths used in each domain and their mean occupation when R cost varies (NSFNET, U step ).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Number of paths used in each domain and their mean occupation when T max varies (Pan-European topology, U step ).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Number of paths used in each domain and their mean occupation when T max varies (Pan-European topology, U exp ).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Number of paths used in each domain and their mean occupation when T max varies (six-node topology, U exp ).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

ML algorithm results for the six-node topology. (a) Percentage of LSPs sent using the IP layer, (b) mean occupation of the IP links.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Bayesian algorithm results when T max varies (six-node topology, U exp ). (a) Percentage of LSPs sent through the IP layer, (b) mean occupation of the IP links.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm 1. Optimization Problem

Tables Icon

Table 2 Algorithm 2. Heuristic Algorithm

Tables Icon

Table 1 Path Length With Variation of R cost Parameter (NSFNET)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Path Length With Variation of T max Parameter (Pan-European Topology)

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( f ) = d = 1 D p = 1 P d ( K c C T ( f d p ) K u E x [ U ( x p e2e ) ] ) , x p e2e 0 ,
f pdf ( x j ) = α β j α x j α 1 exp { ( x j β j ) α } , x j 0 ,
α = 2 2 H ,
β j = 1 C ( 2 κ ( H ) 2 a m e j ( C m e j ) 2 H ) 1 2 2 H ,
E x [ U mean ( x p e2e ) ] = E x [ x p e2e ] = j = 1 M p E x [ x j ] = j = 1 M p { β j Γ ( 1 + 1 α ) } ,
U step ( x p e2e ) = { 1 if 0 < x p e2e < T max 0 otherwise } ,
E x [ U step ( x p e2e ) ] = 0 T max f pdf ( x p e2e ) d x p e2e = f cdf ( x p e2e < T max ) .
f cdf ( x p e2e < T max ) N ( j = 1 M p μ j , j = 1 M p σ j 2 ) = N ( μ p e2e , σ p e2e ) ,
σ j 2 = β 2 [ Γ ( 1 + 2 α ) Γ 2 ( 1 + 1 α ) ] .
U exp ( x p e2e ) = λ e λ x p e2e , x p e2e 0 ,
λ = 1 T max log ( 1 η ) .
E x [ U exp ( x p e2e ) ] = E x [ λ e λ x p e2e ] = λ e λ x p e2e N ( μ p e2e , σ p e2e ) d x p e2e .
E x [ U exp ( x p e2e ) ] = λ e σ p 2 e 2 e λ 2 2 μ p e2e λ 2 .
C T ( f d p ) = C e ( f d p ) + R cost C o ( f d p ) ,