Abstract

An efficient monitoring method having a very short measurement time (a few seconds) is proposed. The equal-length branches can be effectively monitored, but also the information of temperature at any place in the network can be obtained. The feasibility of this technique is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.
  2. M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Caviglia, V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, Madrid, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.
  4. K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.
  5. N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.
  6. F. J. Effenberger, S. Meng, “In-band optical frequency domain reflectometry in PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper JWA106.
  7. S.-L. Lee, S.-T. Ji, C.-H. Cheng, “Novel fault monitoring scheme for PON systems using wavelength sweeper and interferometric devices,” in Joint Conf. of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 2008 and the 2008 Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008, Sydney, 2008, pp. 1–2.
  8. M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hehmann, T. Pfeiffer, “New monitoring concepts for optical access networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183–198, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 5845–5851, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.
  12. Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

2009 (3)

M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 5845–5851, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Hehmann, T. Pfeiffer, “New monitoring concepts for optical access networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183–198, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

ab-Rahman, M. S.

M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Allison, S. G.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Bang, H.

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Batten, C. F.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Caviglia, F.

F. Caviglia, V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, Madrid, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

Cheng, C.-H.

S.-L. Lee, S.-T. Ji, C.-H. Cheng, “Novel fault monitoring scheme for PON systems using wavelength sweeper and interferometric devices,” in Joint Conf. of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 2008 and the 2008 Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008, Sydney, 2008, pp. 1–2.

Childers, B. A.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Costa, L.

L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.

Di Biase, V. C.

F. Caviglia, V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, Madrid, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

Effenberger, F. J.

F. J. Effenberger, S. Meng, “In-band optical frequency domain reflectometry in PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper JWA106.

Froggatt, M. E.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Hann, S.

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hare, D. A.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Hehmann, J.

J. Hehmann, T. Pfeiffer, “New monitoring concepts for optical access networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183–198, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Higo, T.

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

Ito, H.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.

Jegley, D. C.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Ji, S.-T.

S.-L. Lee, S.-T. Ji, C.-H. Cheng, “Novel fault monitoring scheme for PON systems using wavelength sweeper and interferometric devices,” in Joint Conf. of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 2008 and the 2008 Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008, Sydney, 2008, pp. 1–2.

Jumari, K.

M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

Lazaro, J. A.

L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.

Lee, S.-L.

S.-L. Lee, S.-T. Ji, C.-H. Cheng, “Novel fault monitoring scheme for PON systems using wavelength sweeper and interferometric devices,” in Joint Conf. of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 2008 and the 2008 Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008, Sydney, 2008, pp. 1–2.

Mégret, P.

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 5845–5851, 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.

Meng, S.

F. J. Effenberger, S. Meng, “In-band optical frequency domain reflectometry in PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper JWA106.

Moeyaert, V.

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.

Moore, T. C.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Namihira, Y.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.

Ndiaye, C.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.

Ng, B. C.

M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ogura, I.

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

Ono, Y.

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

Park, C.-S.

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, T.

J. Hehmann, T. Pfeiffer, “New monitoring concepts for optical access networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183–198, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.

Shim, K.-W.

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, Y.

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

Teixeira, A.

L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.

Thollabandi, M.

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wuilpart, M.

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 5845–5851, 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.

Yüksel, K.

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 5845–5851, 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.

Zou, N.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

J. Hehmann, T. Pfeiffer, “New monitoring concepts for optical access networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 183–198, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Sci. (1)

M. S. ab-Rahman, B. C. Ng, K. Jumari, “Engineering a network management system for FTTH access network,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 2390–2398, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Thollabandi, H. Bang, K.-W. Shim, S. Hann, C.-S. Park, “An optical surveillance technique based on cavity mode analysis of SL-RSOA for GPON,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 451–455, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, D. C. Jegley, “Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4332, pp. 133–142, 2001.

Other (7)

Y. Shinoda, I. Ogura, Y. Ono, S. Kaneko, T. Higo, “Fundamental experiment of multiple-point measurement for strain by fiber Bragg gratings using optical frequency sweeping,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE Int. Joint Conf., Busan, South Korea, 2006, pp. 1672–1674.

F. Caviglia, V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, Madrid, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 92–98.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper NWC2.

F. J. Effenberger, S. Meng, “In-band optical frequency domain reflectometry in PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper JWA106.

S.-L. Lee, S.-T. Ji, C.-H. Cheng, “Novel fault monitoring scheme for PON systems using wavelength sweeper and interferometric devices,” in Joint Conf. of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 2008 and the 2008 Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008, Sydney, 2008, pp. 1–2.

L. Costa, J. A. Lazaro, V. Polo, A. Teixeira, “Viability of in-service, low-cost and spatially unambiguous OTDR monitoring in TDM- and WDM-PON access networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON '09, Azores, 2009, pp. 1–4.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical functions present in the PON with the proposed monitoring method. (IF, interferometer unit; WDM, wavelength division (de)multiplexer; F, filter).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mapping of the amplitude reflection coefficient as a function of wavelength into the amplitude reflection coefficient as a function of time under the condition that the wavelength of the TLS is swept linearly in time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Operation principles for temperature sensing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of demodulated Bragg wavelength as a function of temperature for IF-2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OFDR signal in time domain.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detected OFDR spectra for the reference and faulty cases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Demodulated reflection spectra for the FBG inside the IF-2 for the reference and faulty cases.