Abstract

We propose a technique to electronically postcompensate fiber nonlinearity in 40Gbits long-haul WDM transmission systems. We have analyzed this technique for return-to-zero and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero modulation formats using two different dispersion maps. Our analysis shows that the proposed technique can increase the overall system margin by more than 1.0dB in 40Gbits long-haul WDM transmission systems.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, “Intrachannel cross phase modulation and four wave mixing in high speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 1576–1578, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearity,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1548–1557, 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Hui, K. R. Demarest, C. T. Allen, “Cross-phase modulation in multispan WDM optical fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1018–1026, June 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 392–394, Apr. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 243–248, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.
  9. P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 28, pp. 179–209, May 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Yousaf Hamza, S. Tariq, L. Chen, “Dispersion compensation in the presence of nonlinearity in optical fiber communications,” in 10th IEEE Singapore Int. Conf. on Communication Systems, 2006. ICCS 2006, Singapore, 2006, pp. 1–5.
  11. M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, “Pre- and post-compensation of dispersion and nonlinearities in 10-Gb∕s WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271–1273, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. Weinert, R. Ludwig, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, F. Küppers, “40 Gb∕s and 4×40 Gb∕s TDM/WDM standard fiber transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 2276–2284, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yariv, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, “Compensation for channel dispersion by nonlinear optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett., vol 4, pp. 52–54, 1979.
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, “Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1439–1453, Sept. 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, “Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1397–1399, May 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Bulow, F. Buchali, A. Klekamp, “Electronic dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 158–167, Jan. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, “Electronic predistortion for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, paper Tu4.2.2.
  20. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, pp. 880–888, 2008.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation,” 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Acapulco, 2008, pp. 123–124.
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic precompensation techniques to combat dispersion and nonlinearity in optical transmission,” in Proc. of 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 251–254.
  23. K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  25. K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 779–783, Mar. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Li, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, A. Xu, “Chromatic dispersion compensation and fiber nonlinearity mitigation of OOK signals with diverse-VSB-filtering FFE and DFE,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 26, pp. 21991–21996, Dec. 2008.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, “Long-haul WDM IMDD transmission at 10.7 Gbit∕s in a dispersion-managed multispan system using MLSE receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 3041–3047, Sept. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. S. Bergano, “Undersea communications systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunication IVB Systems and Impairments, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002, pp 154–197.

2009 (1)

P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 28, pp. 179–209, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2006 (2)

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 779–783, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, “Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1397–1399, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 392–394, Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1997 (2)

C. Lorattanasane, K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance optical transmission systems using midway optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 948–955, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, “Pre- and post-compensation of dispersion and nonlinearities in 10-Gb∕s WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271–1273, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 243–248, 1996.
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearity,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1548–1557, 1990.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, “Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1439–1453, Sept. 1990.
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Allen, C. T.

Barros, D. J. F.

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation,” 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Acapulco, 2008, pp. 123–124.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic precompensation techniques to combat dispersion and nonlinearity in optical transmission,” in Proc. of 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 251–254.

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, “Undersea communications systems,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunication IVB Systems and Impairments, I. Kaminow and T. Li, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002, pp 154–197.

Bosco, G.

Breuer, D.

Buchali, F.

Bulow, H.

Bunge, C. A.

C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

M. Yousaf Hamza, S. Tariq, L. Chen, “Dispersion compensation in the presence of nonlinearity in optical fiber communications,” in 10th IEEE Singapore Int. Conf. on Communication Systems, 2006. ICCS 2006, Singapore, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearity,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1548–1557, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Clausen, C. B.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 392–394, Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Curri, V.

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
[CrossRef]

Demarest, K. R.

Elbers, J.

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, “Intrachannel cross phase modulation and four wave mixing in high speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 1576–1578, 1999.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, “Electronic predistortion for advanced modulation formats,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, paper Tu4.2.2.

Färbert, A.

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Fekete, D.

Fischer, G.

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J. K.

C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Gaeta, A. L.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Gaudino, R.

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
[CrossRef]

Gitlin, R. D.

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, “Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1439–1453, Sept. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Glick, M.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic precompensation techniques to combat dispersion and nonlinearity in optical transmission,” in Proc. of 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 251–254.

Glingener, C.

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, G.

Hardcastle, I.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hayee, M. I.

M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, “Pre- and post-compensation of dispersion and nonlinearities in 10-Gb∕s WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271–1273, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-P.

Hui, R.

Ip, E.

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation,” 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Acapulco, 2008, pp. 123–124.
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, “Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1397–1399, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 779–783, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation,” 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Acapulco, 2008, pp. 123–124.
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

C. Lorattanasane, K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance optical transmission systems using midway optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 948–955, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic precompensation techniques to combat dispersion and nonlinearity in optical transmission,” in Proc. of 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 251–254.

Kim, I.

Klekamp, A.

Küppers, F.

Kuzucu, O.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Lau, A. P. T.

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation,” 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Acapulco, 2008, pp. 123–124.
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, M.

Li, X.

Lipson, M.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Lorattanasane, C.

C. Lorattanasane, K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance optical transmission systems using midway optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 948–955, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

Mateo, E.

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 392–394, Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

R. J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, “Intrachannel cross phase modulation and four wave mixing in high speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 1576–1578, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

P. Minzioni, “Nonlinearity compensation in a fiber-optic link by optical phase conjugation,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 28, pp. 179–209, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Napoli, A.

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Pepper, D. M.

Petermann, K.

C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Weinert, R. Ludwig, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, F. Küppers, “40 Gb∕s and 4×40 Gb∕s TDM/WDM standard fiber transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 2276–2284, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Pieper, W.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, “Long-haul WDM IMDD transmission at 10.7 Gbit∕s in a dispersion-managed multispan system using MLSE receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 3041–3047, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, “Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 2556–2558, Nov 2004.
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

R. J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, “Intrachannel cross phase modulation and four wave mixing in high speed TDM systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 1576–1578, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Scheerer, C.

J. Elbers, A. Färbert, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, “Reduced model to describe SPM-limited fiber transmission in dispersion-managed lightwave systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 276–281, Mar./Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 243–248, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, M. Shtaif, “Analysis of intrachannel nonlinear effects in highly dispersed optical pulse transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 392–394, Apr. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Strawczynski, L.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O’Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 403–405, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Tariq, S.

M. Yousaf Hamza, S. Tariq, L. Chen, “Dispersion compensation in the presence of nonlinearity in optical fiber communications,” in 10th IEEE Singapore Int. Conf. on Communication Systems, 2006. ICCS 2006, Singapore, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Thiele, H. J.

R. I. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikhailov, P. Bayvel, “Reduction of intrachannel nonlinear distortion in 40-Gb∕s-based WDM transmission over standard fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1624–1626, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

O. Kuzucu, Y. Okawachi, R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, “Dispersion and nonlinearity compensation using spectral phase conjugation,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf., Baltimore, Maryland, 2009, paper CPDB3.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, “Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1397–1399, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 243–248, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Watts, P. M.

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, “Electronic precompensation techniques to combat dispersion and nonlinearity in optical transmission,” in Proc. of 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 251–254.

Weber, C.

C. Weber, J. K. Fischer, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, “Electronic precompensation of intrachannel nonlinearities at 40 Gb∕s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 1759–1761, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

Weinert, C. M.

Willner, A. E.

M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, “Pre- and post-compensation of dispersion and nonlinearities in 10-Gb∕s WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1271–1273, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Winters, J. H.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the proposed technique. DC is the decision circuit, and τ denotes time delays of the DCs with respect to the center of the bit time. “DC selector” is a high-speed electrical switch. The eye diagrams are the 42.7 Gbit s simulated eyes for RZ and CSRZ modulation formats at a transmission distance of 1000 km for average channel power for 4 dBm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Subsets of an eye diagram with selective bits showing average time shift and amplitude shift in a “1” pulse with unique combinations of neighboring bits at the transmission distance of 1000 km .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average time shift versus neighboring bit patterns for one (upper chart) and two neighboring bits (lower chart).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the simulated system. ENLC is electronic nonlinearity compensation, i.e., the proposed technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Q versus average channel power for a 42.7 Gbit s single-channel transmission system at a 1000 km transmission distance for (a) RZ and (b) CSRZ modulation formats. The three curves with solid lines are for using the proposed technique with 1, 2, and 3 neighboring bits on each side. The dashed curves are without the proposed technique.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Q versus average channel power for a 42.7 Gbit s single-channel transmission system after a 1000 km transmission distance. Open circles, diamonds, and squares (dashed curves) are for PAD values of 0.1 , 0.2 , and 0.3 ps nm km , respectively. Filled circles, diamonds, and squares are for PAD values of 0.1 , 0.2 , and 0.3 ps nm km , respectively, using the proposed technique with three neighboring bits.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

System margin gain versus number of neighboring bits on each side for a single-channel RZ modulation system at a transmission distance of 1000 km and PAD = 0.1 ps nm km .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Q versus average channel power for a 42.7 Gbit s WDM transmission system after a 1000 km transmission distance for (a) RZ and (b) CSRZ modulation formats. The three solid curves are for the proposed technique with 1, 2, and 3 neighboring bits on each side. Dashed curves are without the proposed technique.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

System margin gain versus number of neighboring bits on each side for 200 GHz RZ and CSRZ and 100 GHz CSRZ systems at a transmission distance of 1000 km . Dispersion map is DSF + SSMF .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

System margin gain versus number of neighboring bits on each side for 200 GHz RZ and CSRZ and 100 GHz CSRZ systems at a transmission distance of 1000 km . Dispersion map is SSMF + DCF .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of DCs Required for One Neighboring Bit on Each Side

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Table 2 Number of DCs Required for Two Neighboring Bits on Each Side

Tables Icon

Table 3 Typical Fiber Parameters for the Two Dispersion Maps