Abstract

We observe that tunable wavelength converters (TWCs) that are traditionally installed in wavelength-routed (WR) networks for wavelength contention resolution can be further utilized to provide fast data switching between lightpaths. This allows us to route a data unit through a sequence of lightpaths from source to destination if a direct single lightpath connection is not available or if we want to minimize the overhead of setting up new lightpaths. Since TWCs have a tuning time of picoseconds, it may be possible to use the installed TWCs as lightpath data interchanges (LPIs) to improve the performance of WR networks without significant optical hardware upgrade. Compared with the multihop electronic grooming approach of lightpath networks, the LPI approach has a simpler WR node architecture, does not need expensive high-speed electrical multiplexers/routers, and does not sacrifice the bit-rate/format transparency of data between the source and destination. Our simulation results show that WR networks with LPIs can have much lower blocking probability than WR networks without LPIs if the traffic duration is short. We show that LPIs can also be used to provide new data transportation services such as optical time division multiplexing access (OTDMA) time-slotted service in WR networks.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

K. Vlachos, C. Raffaelli, S. Aleksic, N. Andriolli, D. Apastoloponlas, H. Auramoponlos, D. Erasme, D. Klonidis, M. N. Petersen, M. Scaffardi, K. Schutze, M. Spiropoulov, S. Sygletos, I. Tunkos, C. Vazquez, O. Zouraraki, F. Neri, “Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 404–428, 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, H. Zhou, G. Jiang, Y. Sun, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, X. Jiang, “A proposal of zero leakage-loss passive optical combiner based on nonreciprocal waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1493–1495, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, S. Sengupta, “Oblivious routing of highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 459–472, 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Razavi, K. Guild, “Multiconstraints fuzzy-logic-based scheduling algorithm for passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 346–357, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

P. Bernasconi, L. Zhang, W. Yang, N. Sauer, L. L. Buhl, J. H. Sinsky, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40-Gb∕s switchable wavelength converter,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2006.
[CrossRef]

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, “DRAGON: a framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4468–4492, 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Frisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Schneiders, S. Verbeck, W. Weiershausen, F.-J. Westphal, “System and core network architecture,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 869–981, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in path, star, and tree networks: complexity, bounds, and algorithms,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 66–82, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Karagiannis, M. Molle, M. Faloutsos, “Long-range dependence ten years of Internet traffic modeling,” Inf. Manage., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 57–64, 2004.

C. S. Xin, C. M. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks—performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, Y. Koike, H. Tanobe, K. Harada, M. Matsuoka, “Field trial of full-mesh WDM network (AWG-STAR) in metropolitan/local area,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 329–336, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. Sankaranarayanan, S. Subramaniam, “Comprehensive performance modeling and analysis of multicasting in optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1399–1413, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, S. Rangarajan, W. Wang, K. N. Poulsen, “Optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. S23–S29, 2003.
[CrossRef]

M. L. Rocha, S. M. Rossi, M. R. X. Barros, L. Pezzollo, J. B. Roselem, M. F. Oliveira, A. Paradisi, T. Kauppinen, A. Gavler, “Amplifier placement in metro-scaled wavelength-routed network,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 302–304, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Düser, P. Bayvel, “Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 574–585, 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. S. El-Bawab, J.-D. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Wei, R. I. McFarland, “Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2019–2037, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. S. Tuner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, pp. 3–16, 1999.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Tajima, N. Kitamura, S. Takahashi, S. Kitamura, Y. Maeno, Y. Suemurg, N. Nenmi, “10-Gb∕s/port gated divider passive combiner optical switch with single-mode-to-multimode combiner,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 162–164, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. C. Lee, V. O. K. Li, “A wavelength-convertible optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 962–970, 1993.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

N. F. Maxemchuk, “Routing in Manhattan Street network,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 503–512, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Aksyule, V. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Aleksic, S.

Alic, N.

Andriolli, N.

Apastoloponlas, D.

Arney, S.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Auramoponlos, H.

Barbier, D.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Barros, M. R. X.

M. L. Rocha, S. M. Rossi, M. R. X. Barros, L. Pezzollo, J. B. Roselem, M. F. Oliveira, A. Paradisi, T. Kauppinen, A. Gavler, “Amplifier placement in metro-scaled wavelength-routed network,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 302–304, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N. P.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Bennion, I.

Bernasconi, P.

Berthold, J.

Blair, L.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, S. Rangarajan, W. Wang, K. N. Poulsen, “Optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. S23–S29, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, S. Rangarajan, W. Wang, K. N. Poulsen, “Optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. S23–S29, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Braun, R.-P.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Frisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Schneiders, S. Verbeck, W. Weiershausen, F.-J. Westphal, “System and core network architecture,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 869–981, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Breuer, D.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Frisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Schneiders, S. Verbeck, W. Weiershausen, F.-J. Westphal, “System and core network architecture,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 869–981, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Bruno, P.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Chan, H. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. K.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, R.

R. Chen, H. Zhou, G. Jiang, Y. Sun, Y. Hao, J. Yang, M. Wang, X. Jiang, “A proposal of zero leakage-loss passive optical combiner based on nonreciprocal waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1493–1495, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Chou, H.-F.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, L. Rau, H.-F. Chou, S. Rangarajan, W. Wang, K. N. Poulsen, “Optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. S23–S29, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Coate, J. V.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weis, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Parpazian, R. E. Frahm, N. P. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyule, F. Pardo, M. S. Simon, V. Lifton, H. R. Chan, M. Hauies, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodne, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Coate, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, 2003.
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

Delavaux, J. M.

Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

C. S. Xin, C. M. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks—performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

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Y. Jaouen, L. du Mouza, D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, P. Bruno, “Eight-wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1107, 1999.
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ftp://ftp.uu.net/inet/maps/nsfnet/.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WR node with TWCs installed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Four-node wavelength-routed network with two wavelength channels per link.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WR network with M source and N destination nodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Busy periods of the SW, TWC, and output link ( O 1 ) of the last intermediate WR node on a lightpath during a data transmission cycle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

External LPI device.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Blocking probabilities of 16 wavelength channel WR networks with LPIs on networks with topologies of the 4 × 4 Manhattan Street network (MSN) [34] and NSFNet (Fig. 10).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Switch reconfiguration time—blocking performance of WR networks with LPIs on networks with the topology of the NSFNet (Fig. 10).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switch reconfiguration time—blocking performance of WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of the 4 × 4 MSN [34].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Link propagation delay—blocking performance of WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of Fig. 3 ( M = N = 4 ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

NSFNet (1991) network topology. The original map of the network is available from the Internet [35].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Five-node time-slotted WR network with LPIs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Blocking probabilities of the time-slotted WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of the NSFNet (Fig. 10). There are 8 wavelength channels per fiber and 16 time channels per wavelength.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Blocking probabilities of the time-slotted WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of the 4 × 4 MSN [32]. There are 8 wavelength channels per fiber and 16 time channels per wavelength.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Blocking probabilities of the time-slotted WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of the NSFNet (Fig. 10). There are 16 wavelength channels per fiber and 8 time channels per wavelength.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Blocking probabilities of the time-slotted WR networks with LPIs on a network with the topology of the 4 × 4 MSN [32]. The are 16 wavelength channels per fiber and 8 time channels per wavelength.