Abstract

In WDM networks, it is important to maintain the survivability of communication sessions when link failure occurs due to the high bandwidth provided by a fiber link. Link failures have more serious impact on multicast sessions than on unicast sessions since a link used by a multicast session may carry traffic to multiple destinations. Thus, it is more critical to protect multicast sessions against single link failures. Researchers have proposed various protection schemes for multicast sessions, including tree-based, path-based, and segment-based schemes. Tree-based schemes suffer excessive use of network capacity, whereas path-based and segment-based schemes require long restoration times. In this paper, we propose a new p-cycle-based dynamic multicast protection scheme named IpC, which achieves both fast restoration and high capacity efficiency. The main feature of IpC is that it computes high efficiency p-cycles on demand to protect dynamic multicast sessions as they arrive. Extensive simulations have been conducted to evaluate the proposed IpC scheme, and the results show that it outperforms an existing p-cycle-based scheme.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning of survivable multicast sessions against single link failures in optical WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2587–2594, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.
  3. N. K. Singhal, B. Mukherjee, “Protecting multicast sessions in WDM optical mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 884–892, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. K. Singhal, C. Ou, B. Mukherjee, “Shared protection for multicast sessions in mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, paper OTuK4.
  5. C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1998, pp. 537–543.
  7. W. D. Grover, G. Shen, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path-segment protection,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2003, pp. 1314–1319.
  8. L. Ruan, F. Tang, “Dynamic establishment of restorable connections using p-cycle protection in WDM networks,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 147–154.
  9. A. Kodian, W. Grover, “Failure-independent path-protecting p-cycles efficient and simple fully preconnected optical-path protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, pp. 3241–3259, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. He, J. Fang, A. K. Somani, “A p-cycle based survivable design for dynamic traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf., 2005, pp. 1869–1873.
  11. C. Liu, L. Ruan, “p-cycle design in survivable WDM networks with shared risk link groups (SRLGS),” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–311, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Zhong, F. Zhang, Y. Jin, “Optimized designs of p-cycles for survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. ChinaCom, 2007.
  13. F. Zhang, W. Zhong, “Applying p-cycles in dynamic provisioning of survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper JWA74.
  14. Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Ruan, “p-cycle design in survivable WDM networks with shared risk link groups (SRLGS),” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–311, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Ali, M.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.

Ellinas, G.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.

Fang, J.

W. He, J. Fang, A. K. Somani, “A p-cycle based survivable design for dynamic traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf., 2005, pp. 1869–1873.

Grover, W.

A. Kodian, W. Grover, “Failure-independent path-protecting p-cycles efficient and simple fully preconnected optical-path protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, pp. 3241–3259, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1998, pp. 537–543.

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover, G. Shen, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path-segment protection,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2003, pp. 1314–1319.

Hadjiantonis, A.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.

He, W.

W. He, J. Fang, A. K. Somani, “A p-cycle based survivable design for dynamic traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf., 2005, pp. 1869–1873.

Jin, Y.

W. Zhong, F. Zhang, Y. Jin, “Optimized designs of p-cycles for survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. ChinaCom, 2007.

Khalil, A.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.

Kodian, A.

Li, L.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, L. Ruan, “p-cycle design in survivable WDM networks with shared risk link groups (SRLGS),” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–311, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, B. Mukherjee, “Protecting multicast sessions in WDM optical mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 884–892, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning of survivable multicast sessions against single link failures in optical WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2587–2594, 2003.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, C. Ou, B. Mukherjee, “Shared protection for multicast sessions in mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, paper OTuK4.

Ou, C.

N. K. Singhal, C. Ou, B. Mukherjee, “Shared protection for multicast sessions in mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, paper OTuK4.

Ruan, L.

C. Liu, L. Ruan, “p-cycle design in survivable WDM networks with shared risk link groups (SRLGS),” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–311, 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. Ruan, F. Tang, “Dynamic establishment of restorable connections using p-cycle protection in WDM networks,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 147–154.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

Shen, G.

W. D. Grover, G. Shen, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path-segment protection,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2003, pp. 1314–1319.

Singhal, N. K.

Somani, A. K.

W. He, J. Fang, A. K. Somani, “A p-cycle based survivable design for dynamic traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf., 2005, pp. 1869–1873.

Stamatelakis, D.

W. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1998, pp. 537–543.

Tang, F.

L. Ruan, F. Tang, “Dynamic establishment of restorable connections using p-cycle protection in WDM networks,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 147–154.

Wang, S.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

W. Zhong, F. Zhang, Y. Jin, “Optimized designs of p-cycles for survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. ChinaCom, 2007.

F. Zhang, W. Zhong, “Applying p-cycles in dynamic provisioning of survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper JWA74.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W.

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

W. Zhong, F. Zhang, Y. Jin, “Optimized designs of p-cycles for survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. ChinaCom, 2007.

F. Zhang, W. Zhong, “Applying p-cycles in dynamic provisioning of survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper JWA74.

ETRI J. (1)

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, pp. 329–336, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” in IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

C. Liu, L. Ruan, “p-cycle design in survivable WDM networks with shared risk link groups (SRLGS),” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 301–311, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. Zhong, F. Zhang, Y. Jin, “Optimized designs of p-cycles for survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. ChinaCom, 2007.

F. Zhang, W. Zhong, “Applying p-cycles in dynamic provisioning of survivable multicast sessions in optical WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper JWA74.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of survivable heterogeneous multicast and unicast traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2006, pp. 2465–2470.

W. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1998, pp. 537–543.

W. D. Grover, G. Shen, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path-segment protection,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2003, pp. 1314–1319.

L. Ruan, F. Tang, “Dynamic establishment of restorable connections using p-cycle protection in WDM networks,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 147–154.

W. He, J. Fang, A. K. Somani, “A p-cycle based survivable design for dynamic traffic in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf., 2005, pp. 1869–1873.

N. K. Singhal, C. Ou, B. Mukherjee, “Shared protection for multicast sessions in mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, paper OTuK4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of finding new p-cycles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extending an existing p-cycle to protect link e.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Combining two p-cycles with one or more common edges.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Combining two p-cycles with two common nodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Topology of the NSF network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Topology of the COST239 network.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength usage of I p C and D p C in the NSF network.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelength usage of I p C and D p C in the COST239 network.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reject ratio of I p C and D p C in the NSF network.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reject ratio of I p C and D p C in the COST239 network.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Algorithm 1 Find p-Cycles to Protect Multicast Tree T

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Table 2 Algorithm 2 Find a new p-cycle for link e = n 1 n 2

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Table 3 Algorithm 3 Find an extended p-cycle for link e = n 1 n 2

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Table 4 Algorithm 4 Update set P C based on the newly added p-cycle p

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Table 5 Algorithm 5 Find a Multicast Tree for a Multicast Session R = { s , d 1 , d 2 , , d k }

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Table 1 Computation Time ( ms ) Under Different Traffic Loads in the NSF Network

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Table 2 Computation Time ( ms ) Under Different Traffic Loads in the COST239 Network