Abstract

We demonstrate an improvement of optical receiver performance for an optical signal with beat noises. The decision threshold level is adjusted automatically according to the detected average optical power. This simple method improves optical receiver performance under a wide range of input signal conditions, e.g., beat noise level and extinction ratio. Thus this proposed method is useful to optical receivers for WDM-PONs. By employing this control circuit, we successfully demonstrate a WDM-PON based on a wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode at 1.25 Gb/s per channel with 100 GHz spacing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C.-H. Lee, W. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4568–4583, Dec. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.
  4. C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.
  10. A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.
  14. M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.
  16. S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “An optimization method for the decision threshold level in optical receivers for WDM-PONs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6354, paper 635429, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.
  18. J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2005.
  19. S.-M. Lee, M.-H. Kim, C.-H. Lee, “Demonstration of a long-reach DWDM-PON for consolidation of metro and access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 271–276, Jan. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. K. Mynbaev, L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
  21. K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.
  22. J.-S. Jeong, C.-H. Lee, “Optical noise suppression techniques for wavelength-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode,” in Proc. of the 15th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Shanghai, China, 2009, paper 142.
  23. C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

2008 (1)

H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, W. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4568–4583, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “An optimization method for the decision threshold level in optical receivers for WDM-PONs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6354, paper 635429, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Baik, J.-S.

K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.-M.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

Chung, Y. C.

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, I.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Ibsen, M.

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Inami, D.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.

Iwatsuki, K.

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-S.

J.-S. Jeong, C.-H. Lee, “Optical noise suppression techniques for wavelength-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode,” in Proc. of the 15th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Shanghai, China, 2009, paper 142.

Jeong, K.-T.

Jorgensen, B. F.

C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

Kang, S.-G.

H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kawai, M.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H.-D.

H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

Kim, M.-H.

Kuriyama, T.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.

Lee, C.-H.

H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Lee, M.-H. Kim, C.-H. Lee, “Demonstration of a long-reach DWDM-PON for consolidation of metro and access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 271–276, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, W. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4568–4583, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “An optimization method for the decision threshold level in optical receivers for WDM-PONs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6354, paper 635429, 2006.
[CrossRef]

H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

J.-S. Jeong, C.-H. Lee, “Optical noise suppression techniques for wavelength-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode,” in Proc. of the 15th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Shanghai, China, 2009, paper 142.

K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.

Lee, H.-J.

H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

Lee, J. S.

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-M.

Liu, F.

C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

Lu, C.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, Y.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.

McCoy, A. D.

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, K.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Moon, J.-H.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

Mun, S.-G.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, “WDM-PON experiences in Korea [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 451–464, Apr. 2007.
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “An optimization method for the decision threshold level in optical receivers for WDM-PONs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6354, paper 635429, 2006.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

Mynbaev, D. K.

D. K. Mynbaev, L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

Nagahori, T.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Nukada, Y.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Oh, T.-W.

K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.

Ohta, M.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.

Ohtsuka, T.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Palais, J. C.

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2005.

Park, H. J.

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

Park, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.

Park, S. J.

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

Park, T. S.

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

Pedersen, R. J. S.

C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

Rasmussen, C. J.

C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

Richardson, D. J.

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Scheiner, L. L.

D. K. Mynbaev, L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

Shao, X.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Shiba, K.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Shine, T.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

Sorin, W.

Sugo, M.

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Uda, A.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Wang, Y.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Wen, Y. J.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, K.

M. Kawai, H. Watanabe, T. Ohtsuka, K. Yamaguchi, “Smart optical receiver with automatic decision threshold setting and retiming phase alignment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1634–1640, Nov. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. S.

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, M. Sugo, “Noise characteristics of signal reflected from ASE-injected FP-LD in loopback access networks,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 111–112, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

H.-D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680–682, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1458–1461, Dec. 1993.
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Lee, “A simple and color-free WDM-passive optical network using spectrum-sliced Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 220–222, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Dong, Z. Xu, X. Shao, Y. Wang, C. Lu, “Optimization of spectrum-sliced ASE source for injection-locking a Fabry-Pérot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 1961–1963, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “An optimization method for the decision threshold level in optical receivers for WDM-PONs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6354, paper 635429, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

H.-K. Lee, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, C.-H. Lee, “An automatic decision threshold control circuit for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LDs,” in Proc. 14th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., Sydney, Australia, 2008, paper ThL-4.

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2005.

I. Hatakeyama, T. Nagahori, K. Miyoshi, Y. Nukada, T. Shine, T. Watanabe, A. Uda, K. Shiba, “A 12-channel data-format-free 1 Gb∕s∕ch parallel optical receiver,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., San Francisco, CA, 1999, paper WP 22.2.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuR2.

H. J. Park, H. S. Yoon, T. S. Park, S. J. Park, J. H. Kim, “Recent research activities of WDM-PON in Korea,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optics Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper OWL1.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999.

D. K. Mynbaev, L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

K.-Y. Park, J.-S. Baik, T.-W. Oh, C.-H. Lee, “Intensity noise suppression and 1.25 Gb∕s transmission using a wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diode with filtered ASE injection,” in Proc. 10th OptoElectronics and Communication Conf., 2004, paper 13P-44, pp. 200–201.

J.-S. Jeong, C.-H. Lee, “Optical noise suppression techniques for wavelength-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode,” in Proc. of the 15th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Shanghai, China, 2009, paper 142.

C. J. Rasmussen, F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, B. F. Jorgensen, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the number of crosstalk signals on the penalty caused by incoherent optical crosstalk,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Feb. 1999, paper TuR5–1.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optimum decision threshold levels for WDM-PON based on the wavelength-locked F-P LD. The character ( D ) represents the decision threshold level of the proposed decision threshold control circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the optical receiver with the automatic decision threshold control circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results for the BER performance according to the decision threshold levels for the best case and the worst case. ( A ) ( D ) represent the decision level conditions in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup with the proposed optical receiver.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experiment results for the BER performance according to the decision threshold levels for the best case and the worst case. The inset shows the measured eye diagram of the worst-case optical signal for the back-to-back condition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimum decision threshold levels according to variation of (a) ER and (b) RIN. The reference indicates the decision threshold level of ( D ) in Fig. 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power penalty contours as a function of the signal condition at 1.25 Gb s . The symbols represent the experimental results and the solid lines show the simulation results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER curves of five upstream channels with the decision threshold control circuit. The inset shows the measured spectra of five channels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optimum decision threshold level at 10 Gb s . The character ( C ) represents the decision threshold level of the proposed control circuit.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power penalty contours as a function of the signal condition at 10 Gb s .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Simulation Parameters a

Equations (8)

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I th = σ 0 I 1 + σ 1 I 0 σ 0 + σ 1 ,
σ 0 = σ thermal = einc B ,
σ 1 = σ 2 thermal + σ 2 beating ,
σ 2 beating = R 2 P 1 2 10 x 10 B ,
P 1 = 2 1 + ϵ P ¯ rec , P 0 = 2 ϵ 1 + ϵ P ¯ rec ,
Q 0 = I th I 0 σ 0 , Q 1 = I 1 I th σ 1 .
BER = 1 4 erfc ( Q 0 2 ) + 1 4 erfc ( Q 1 2 ) 1 2 1 2 π Q 0 exp ( Q 0 2 2 ) + 1 2 1 2 π Q 1 exp ( Q 1 2 2 ) .
σ 2 reflection = R 2 P 1 2 × [ 2 E 2 2 E 1 2 × P 2 + E 3 2 E 1 2 × P 3 × n = 1 ( 2 ( n 1 ) × 10 ( n 1 ) ( G + R ) 10 ) ] ,