Abstract

All-optical networks, in which the electrical regeneration bottlenecks are removed, are seen as the next-generation backbone networks. Any link failure in these high-speed environments, if not dealt with promptly, is catastrophic and can cause the loss of gigabits of data. While techniques to improve the survivability of optical networks are now well-established, such is not the case with all-optical networks. In these environments, the absence of regeneration implies that physical impairments accumulate over long paths. So-called cross-layer techniques mitigate the physical impairments’ impact on the network layer performance. In this work, we apply cross-layer techniques, previously successfully applied to the impairment-constrained routing and wavelength assignment problem [IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, p. 32, 2008], to the problem of improving the survivability of all-optical networks facing link failures. To the best of our knowledge, cross-layer survivability of all-optical networks has never been studied before. We present algorithms that improve the network survivability over non-cross-layer algorithms by decreasing both the blocking probability and the vulnerability of the network to failures. Our mechanisms are evaluated with extensive simulations for a realistic regional-sized network. The cross-layer algorithms are computationally intensive, and to alleviate this issue we propose two new compound restoration algorithms as well as two novel quality-of-transmission-aware protection schemes that exhibit low blocking probability and have a moderate vulnerability ratio and time complexity.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Zhou, S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag., vol. 14, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 2000.
  3. S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I—protection,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 1999, pp. 744–751.
  4. S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part II—restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1999, pp. 2023–2030.
  5. Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.
  8. D. Penninckx, C. Perret, “New physical analysis of 10-Gb∕s transparent optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 778–780, May 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Jukan, G. Franzl, “Path selection methods with multiple constraints in service-guaranteed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–72, Feb. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2006, paper OFG4.
  11. T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2004, pp. 140–149.
  12. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), San Jose, CA, USA, 2006, pp. 1–9.
  13. Y. Huang, J. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 982–993, Mar. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, “Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR1.
  15. N. Zulkifli, K. Guild, “Moving toward upgradeable all-optical networks through impairment-aware RWA algorithms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR3.
  16. X. Yang, L. Shen, B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Protection and restoration from link failure in DWDM networks: a cross-layer study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5448–5452.
  18. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: a novel approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems. Wiley, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Analysis of noise amplification by a CW pump signal due to fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1062–1064, Apr. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Study of crosstalk enhancement by fiber nonlinearity in all-optical networks using perturbation theory,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4074–4083, Dec. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the Volterra Series Transfer Function method,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40–53, Jan. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 184–193.
  26. Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR5.
  27. Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Performance of dedicated path protection in transmission-impaired DWDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, 2007, pp. 2442–2347.
  28. A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008, paper OWN7.

2008 (1)

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Analysis of noise amplification by a CW pump signal due to fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1062–1064, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef]

A. Jukan, G. Franzl, “Path selection methods with multiple constraints in service-guaranteed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–72, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Penninckx, C. Perret, “New physical analysis of 10-Gb∕s transparent optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 778–780, May 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the Volterra Series Transfer Function method,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40–53, Jan. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. Zhou, S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag., vol. 14, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 2000.

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: a novel approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems. Wiley, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Arantes, E.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Askarian, A.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Protection and restoration from link failure in DWDM networks: a cross-layer study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5448–5452.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008, paper OWN7.

Barry, R. A.

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Bastos-Filho, C.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Study of crosstalk enhancement by fiber nonlinearity in all-optical networks using perturbation theory,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4074–4083, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Analysis of noise amplification by a CW pump signal due to fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1062–1064, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the Volterra Series Transfer Function method,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40–53, Jan. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR5.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Performance of dedicated path protection in transmission-impaired DWDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, 2007, pp. 2442–2347.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008, paper OWN7.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Protection and restoration from link failure in DWDM networks: a cross-layer study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5448–5452.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), San Jose, CA, USA, 2006, pp. 1–9.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2006, paper OFG4.

Chiu, A.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: a novel approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Coelho, L.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Dante, R.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Datta, D.

de Oliveira, J.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Deng, T.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2004, pp. 140–149.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 184–193.

Feng, H.

Finn, S. G.

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Fontana, E.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Franzl, G.

A. Jukan, G. Franzl, “Path selection methods with multiple constraints in service-guaranteed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–72, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: a novel approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Guild, K.

N. Zulkifli, K. Guild, “Moving toward upgradeable all-optical networks through impairment-aware RWA algorithms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR3.

He, J.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), San Jose, CA, USA, 2006, pp. 1–9.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, “RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2006, paper OFG4.

He, W.

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J.

Huang, Y.

Jukan, A.

A. Jukan, G. Franzl, “Path selection methods with multiple constraints in service-guaranteed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–72, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: a novel approach to high bandwidth optical WANs,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Lumetta, S.

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Markidis, G.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, “Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR1.

Martins-Filho, J.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Medard, M.

M. Medard, R. A. Barry, S. G. Finn, W. He, S. Lumetta, “Generalized loop-back recovery in optical mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Huang, J. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 982–993, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I—protection,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 1999, pp. 744–751.

S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part II—restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1999, pp. 2023–2030.

Nunes, F.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Oliveira, S.

J. Martins-Filho, C. Bastos-Filho, E. Arantes, S. Oliveira, L. Coelho, J. de Oliveira, R. Dante, E. Fontana, F. Nunes, “Novel routing algorithm for transparent optical networks based on noise figure and amplifier saturation,” in IEEE Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), vol. 2, 2003, pp. 919–923.

Penninckx, D.

D. Penninckx, C. Perret, “New physical analysis of 10-Gb∕s transparent optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 778–780, May 2003.
[CrossRef]

Perret, C.

D. Penninckx, C. Perret, “New physical analysis of 10-Gb∕s transparent optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 778–780, May 2003.
[CrossRef]

Pointurier, Y.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Study of crosstalk enhancement by fiber nonlinearity in all-optical networks using perturbation theory,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4074–4083, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Protection and restoration from link failure in DWDM networks: a cross-layer study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5448–5452.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR5.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008, paper OWN7.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Performance of dedicated path protection in transmission-impaired DWDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, 2007, pp. 2442–2347.

Ramamurthy, B.

Ramamurthy, S.

S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I—protection,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 1999, pp. 744–751.

S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, part II—restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1999, pp. 2023–2030.

Shen, L.

Strand, J.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, S. Subramaniam, “Survivability in optical networks,” IEEE Network Mag., vol. 14, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 2000.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2004, pp. 140–149.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Protection and restoration from link failure in DWDM networks: a cross-layer study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5448–5452.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Performance of dedicated path protection in transmission-impaired DWDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, 2007, pp. 2442–2347.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, S. Subramaniam, Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2008, paper OWN7.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR5.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (Broadnets), 2005, pp. 184–193.

Sygletos, S.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, “Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR1.

Tkach, R.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, “Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR1.

Tzanakaki, A.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, G. Markidis, “Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2007, paper OWR1.

Xu, B.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, “Analysis of noise amplification by a CW pump signal due to fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1062–1064, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of a transmission path used to compute the Q factor. Amplifiers inject ASE noise, interplay between channels in fiber spans causes nonlinear crosstalk, while leaks in the OXCs cause node crosstalk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Topology used in the simulations. We used a downscaled version of the NSF net topology (14 nodes, 21 bidirectional links) to perform our simulations. The link weights on the figure correspond to the number of 70 km long fiber spans.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength blocking probability versus traffic load for protection algorithms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total blocking probability versus traffic load for protection algorithms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength blocking probability versus traffic load for restoration algorithms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total blocking probability versus traffic load for restoration algorithms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Vulnerability ratio versus traffic load for protection algorithms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vulnerability ratio versus traffic load for restoration algorithms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wavelength vulnerability ratio versus traffic load for restoration algorithms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Blocking probability versus traffic load for high-speed algorithms.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vulnerability ratio versus traffic load for high-speed algorithms.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Time complexity versus traffic load for restoration algorithms.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Time complexity versus traffic load for protection algorithms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Path Protection and Restoration Schemes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Physical Parameters for the Simulated Network

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = μ 1 μ 0 σ 0 + σ 1 ,
σ 1 2 = σ i 2 + σ n 2 + σ n l 2 + σ n x 2 ,
P i j = D i j T i ,
P i = 1 M j = 1 M P i j = 1 M j = 1 M D i j T i .
V = 1 i = 1 S τ i i = 1 S P i τ i = 1 M 1 i = 1 S τ i i = 1 S j = 1 M D i j τ i T i ,
Γ = λ Used λ Total λ Used .
Link Weight = α L + β Γ + γ ( Q Head + Q Tail ) = α L + β λ Used λ Total λ Used + γ ( Q Head + Q Tail ) .
CI j = i = 1 N r η N i s + δ N i a ,