Abstract

The multiprotocol label switching transport profile (MPLS-TP) is a networking scheme for packet transport networks (PTNs) that specifies a connection-oriented, packet-switched architecture. In this work, we study the transmission characteristics and improve transmission performances of Internet-bound traffic in a MPLS-TP network. Our contributions include 1) differentiating and analyzing multiclass self-similar traffic and its quality of user experience (QoE) requests, 2) studying the influences of payload length of time-division multiplexing (TDM) circuit emulation traffic in the network and proposing a novel length adjustment scheme, and 3) proposing a novel bandwidth-efficient algorithm for scheduling of multiclass self-similar traffic. Our work improves the network transport performance by optimizing two aspects, TDM payload size and scheduling algorithms.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  28. R. Subrahmanyan, “Timing recovery for IEEE 1588 applications in telecommunications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, pp. 1858–868, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Mao, W. M. Moh, B. Wei, “PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of diffServ,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 679–684.
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    [CrossRef]

2009

R. Subrahmanyan, “Timing recovery for IEEE 1588 applications in telecommunications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, pp. 1858–868, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Salam, A. Sajjassi, “Provider backbone bridging and MPLS: complementary technologies for next generation carrier Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 77–82, Mar. 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. He, L. Tong, “Detection of information flows,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 4925–4945, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. Almhana, R. McGorman, “Approximating lognormal sum distributions with power lognormal distributions,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2611–2617, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

S. R. Gulliver, G. Ghinea, “The perceptual and attentive impact of delay and jitter in multimedia delivery,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 449–458, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005

J. A. Gubner, “Theorems and fallacies in the theory of long-range-dependent processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1234–1239, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, “Rate-proportional servers: a design methodology for fair queueing algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 164–174, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1995

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Almhana, J.

Z. Liu, J. Almhana, R. McGorman, “Approximating lognormal sum distributions with power lognormal distributions,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2611–2617, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Berger, L.

L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC3473, Jan. 2003.

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Camarillo, G.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Cao, C.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Cao, X.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Chang, X.

X. Chang, “Network simulations with OPNET,” in 1999 Winter Simulation Conf. Proc., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 307–314.

Charalampous, S.

N. Papadopoulos, S. Charalampous, J. P. Combot, “Minimising the impact of Internet-bound traffic in the PSTN/ISDN network,” in 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., 2000, vol. 1, pp. 70–72.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, J. A. Limb, “A behavioral model of web traffic,” in 7th Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 1999, pp. 327–334.

Combot, J. P.

N. Papadopoulos, S. Charalampous, J. P. Combot, “Minimising the impact of Internet-bound traffic in the PSTN/ISDN network,” in 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., 2000, vol. 1, pp. 70–72.

Gallager, R.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Ghinea, G.

S. R. Gulliver, G. Ghinea, “The perceptual and attentive impact of delay and jitter in multimedia delivery,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 449–458, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Gu, W.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Gubner, J. A.

J. A. Gubner, “Theorems and fallacies in the theory of long-range-dependent processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1234–1239, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Gulliver, S. R.

S. R. Gulliver, G. Ghinea, “The perceptual and attentive impact of delay and jitter in multimedia delivery,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 449–458, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Handley, M.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

He, T.

T. He, L. Tong, “Detection of information flows,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 4925–4945, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, E.

E. Hernandez, “T-MPLS: carrier-class transport for converged optical/packet networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper NTuC5.

Hong, X.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Huang, S.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Jiang, H.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Johnston, A.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Kure, O. E.

O. E. Kure, I. Sorteberg, K. Oevsthus, “Architecture for TDM circuit emulation over IP in tactical networks,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf., 2003, Boston, vol. 2, pp. 921–926.

Leland, W. E.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Limb, J. A.

H. Choi, J. A. Limb, “A behavioral model of web traffic,” in 7th Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 1999, pp. 327–334.

Lin, J.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Liu, L.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. Almhana, R. McGorman, “Approximating lognormal sum distributions with power lognormal distributions,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2611–2617, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

J. Mao, W. M. Moh, B. Wei, “PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of diffServ,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 679–684.

McGorman, R.

Z. Liu, J. Almhana, R. McGorman, “Approximating lognormal sum distributions with power lognormal distributions,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2611–2617, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Moh, W. M.

J. Mao, W. M. Moh, B. Wei, “PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of diffServ,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 679–684.

O’Mahony, M. J.

M. J. O’Mahony, “Results from the COST 239 project. Ultra-High Capacity Optical Transmission Networks,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 11–18.

Oevsthus, K.

O. E. Kure, I. Sorteberg, K. Oevsthus, “Architecture for TDM circuit emulation over IP in tactical networks,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf., 2003, Boston, vol. 2, pp. 921–926.

Otani, T.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Papadopoulos, N.

N. Papadopoulos, S. Charalampous, J. P. Combot, “Minimising the impact of Internet-bound traffic in the PSTN/ISDN network,” in 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., 2000, vol. 1, pp. 70–72.

Paxson, V.

W. Willinger, V. Paxson, M. S. Taqqu, “Self-similary and heavy tails: structural modeling of network traffic,” in A Practical Guide To Heavy Tails: Statistical Techniques and Applications. Boston: Birkhauser, 1998, pp. 27–53.

Peterson, J.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Rosenberg, J.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Sajjassi, A.

S. Salam, A. Sajjassi, “Provider backbone bridging and MPLS: complementary technologies for next generation carrier Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 77–82, Mar. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Salam, S.

S. Salam, A. Sajjassi, “Provider backbone bridging and MPLS: complementary technologies for next generation carrier Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 77–82, Mar. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Schooler, E.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Schulzrinne, H.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Skoog, R. A.

R. A. Skoog, “Managing the convergence of carrier Ethernet with optical transport,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper NTuA1.

Sorteberg, I.

O. E. Kure, I. Sorteberg, K. Oevsthus, “Architecture for TDM circuit emulation over IP in tactical networks,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf., 2003, Boston, vol. 2, pp. 921–926.

Sparks, R.

J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, R. Sparks, M. Handley, E. Schooler, “SIP: session initiation protocol,” IETF RFC3261, June 2002.

Stallings, W.

W. Stallings, High-Speed Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Stiliadis, D.

D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, “Rate-proportional servers: a design methodology for fair queueing algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 164–174, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Subrahmanyan, R.

R. Subrahmanyan, “Timing recovery for IEEE 1588 applications in telecommunications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, pp. 1858–868, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Taqqu, M. S.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, V. Paxson, M. S. Taqqu, “Self-similary and heavy tails: structural modeling of network traffic,” in A Practical Guide To Heavy Tails: Statistical Techniques and Applications. Boston: Birkhauser, 1998, pp. 27–53.

Tong, L.

T. He, L. Tong, “Detection of information flows,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 4925–4945, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tsuritani, T.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Varma, A.

D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, “Rate-proportional servers: a design methodology for fair queueing algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 164–174, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Wei, B.

J. Mao, W. M. Moh, B. Wei, “PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of diffServ,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 679–684.

Willinger, W.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, V. Paxson, M. S. Taqqu, “Self-similary and heavy tails: structural modeling of network traffic,” in A Practical Guide To Heavy Tails: Statistical Techniques and Applications. Boston: Birkhauser, 1998, pp. 27–53.

Wilson, D. V.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Yu, S.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Zhang, J.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Zhang, W.

Y. Yin, W. Zhang, H. Guo, T. Tsuritani, X. Hong, J. Wu, H. Jiang, X. Wang, X. Cao, L. Liu, T. Otani, J. Lin, “Demonstration of QoS-classified survivability schemes in transparent OBS/GMPLS networks using streaming media transmission,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009, paper 4.6.4.

Zhang, Y.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Zhao, Y.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

Comput. Commun. Rev.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 202–213, 1995.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Salam, A. Sajjassi, “Provider backbone bridging and MPLS: complementary technologies for next generation carrier Ethernet transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 77–82, Mar. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast.

S. R. Gulliver, G. Ghinea, “The perceptual and attentive impact of delay and jitter in multimedia delivery,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 449–458, 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

T. He, L. Tong, “Detection of information flows,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 4925–4945, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gubner, “Theorems and fallacies in the theory of long-range-dependent processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1234–1239, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

R. Subrahmanyan, “Timing recovery for IEEE 1588 applications in telecommunications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, pp. 1858–868, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.

Z. Liu, J. Almhana, R. McGorman, “Approximating lognormal sum distributions with power lognormal distributions,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 2611–2617, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, “Rate-proportional servers: a design methodology for fair queueing algorithms,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 164–174, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Skoog, “Managing the convergence of carrier Ethernet with optical transport,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper NTuA1.

J. Mao, W. M. Moh, B. Wei, “PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of diffServ,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 679–684.

W. Willinger, V. Paxson, M. S. Taqqu, “Self-similary and heavy tails: structural modeling of network traffic,” in A Practical Guide To Heavy Tails: Statistical Techniques and Applications. Boston: Birkhauser, 1998, pp. 27–53.

O. E. Kure, I. Sorteberg, K. Oevsthus, “Architecture for TDM circuit emulation over IP in tactical networks,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf., 2003, Boston, vol. 2, pp. 921–926.

W. Stallings, High-Speed Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.

D. Bertsekas, R. Gallager, Data Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.

C. Cao, Y. Zhang, S. Huang, Y. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Zhang, W. Gu, “Demonstration of transmission performance in MPLS-TP network using streaming media traffic,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA20.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MPLS-TP simulation testbed based on COST 239 topology.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Traffic QoE requests and applications.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SAA scheme for payload length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission performance of different traffic versus TDM payload size: (a) average latency, (b) average latency variance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TDM latency versus simulation time: (a) without SAA, (b) with SAA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TDM jitter versus TDM payload size: (a) without SAA, (b) with SAA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The principle of four different algorithms: (a) PQ algorithm, (b) WFQ algorithm, (c) WRR algorithm, and (d) our proposed class-WFQ algorithm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CDF of different traffic latencies: (a) TDM, (b) VoIP.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Packet loss ratio for different types of traffic: (a) HDTV, (b) SDTV.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Some Parameters Used for the Traffic Latency Model

Equations (8)

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D 4 = ( P + S ) TDM K ,
D 3 ( i ) = { 0 The queue is empty ( P + S ) pk K Packet traffic is being served n D 4 n TDM packets are being scheduled } ,
D 5 = 2 D 1 + D az + [ i = 1 m 1 D 3 ( i ) + ( m 1 ) D 4 ] .
J = { max D 5 min D 5 } ( 0 , i = 1 m 1 D 3 ( i ) ) .
r save = r peak EF + r BE max ( r avg EF + r BE , r peak EF ) .
r save = r peak EF r avg EF .
r save = r BE .
D σ r + i = 1 n C i s ,