Abstract

In optical code path networks a cycle attack phenomenon has been reported. Cycle attack is caused by multiaccess interference (MAI) among different optical code (OC) paths carried by the same wavelength. A previous study proposed a heuristic wavelength assignment scheme to avoid this unintended cycle attack problem. However, the wavelength assignment retry in the previous proposal may impose an overhead on OC path establishment latency, and furthermore it was not a complete solution to eliminate cycle attacks. In this paper, we propose a cycle-attack-free logical topology design to eliminate the unintended cycle attack problem in the network planning phase instead of the wavelength assignment. The basic idea is to convert the physical network topology into some tree-based logical topologies in which OC paths are routed. Simulation results show that (a) using the tree-based topologies with smaller average hop count helps to obtain better blocking performance and (b) in distributed optical path establishment our proposed approach performs better in terms of blocking and delay performance under the relative dynamic traffic condition.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  6. R. Ramanswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
    [CrossRef]

2008

2005

2002

2001

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1309–1319, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Ramanswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Baba, K.

Cormen, T. H.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2001, pp. 561–579.

Gupta, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, T.

Ho, P.-H.

Huang, S.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Leiserson, C. E.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2001, pp. 561–579.

Mei, Y.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Melhem, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

Qiao, C.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Ramanswami, R.

R. Ramanswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Rivest, R. L.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2001, pp. 561–579.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramanswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Somani, A. K.

T. Wu, A. K. Somani, “Cross-talk attack monitoring and localization in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1390–1401, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Sotobayashi, H.

Stein, C.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2001, pp. 561–579.

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Wu, T.

T. Wu, A. K. Somani, “Cross-talk attack monitoring and localization in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1390–1401, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

K. Kitayama, “Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, pp. 1309–1319, 1998.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramanswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 840–851, 1996.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

T. Wu, A. K. Somani, “Cross-talk attack monitoring and localization in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1390–1401, Dec. 2005.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Photonic Network Commun.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Other

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. The MIT Press, 2001, pp. 561–579.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Decoding and encoding processes of an OC path at an intermediate node. (a) MAI is removed in the ideal case; (b) MAI remains in the realistic case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MAI propagation mechanism. MAI from OC path 1 is induced to OC path 3 at node B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cycle attack by MAI propagation. (a) A network with active OC paths; (b) MAI propagation after new OC path insertion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Basic idea of our cycle-attack-free approach.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The procedure of designing logical topologies. (a), (b) Step 1; (c) Step 2; (d) Step 3; (e) Steps 4, 5; (f) trees for second wavelength (Step 6).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation flowchart.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Network topologies: (a) six-node network; (b) NSF network.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Blocking probability versus network offered load using the proposed algorithm with three different tree selection schemes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Tree utilization ratio of different tree selection schemes. (a) meanHop-FF; (b) tree-FF; (c) Cost.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Signaling for resource reservation upon a connection request: (a) the proposed approach; (b) the existing method [2].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Connection setup delay and blocking probability versus network offered load with a six-node network ( 1 μ = 100 ms ) : (a) link propagation delay; D L = 0.2 ms ; (b) D L = 1 ms ; (c) D L = 5 ms .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Connection setup delay and blocking probability versus network offered load with NSFNET. (a) 1 μ = 1000 ms ; (b) 1 μ = 100 ms .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H ( λ ) = ( m = 1 M h m ) M ,
T ( λ ) = T max ( λ ) H ( λ ) ,
T max ( λ ) = L C .
w i j = m = 1 M r = 1 J m ρ m J m δ i j m r ,
w i j = w i j β i j n T n L n .
Cost ( i , λ ) = OC total ( λ ) OC free ( λ ) ,
Cost total ( k ) = i = 1 M Cost ( i , λ ) ,
utilization ( i th tree ) = number of connections using i th tree total successful connections × 100 % .