Abstract

We propose lightpath establishment techniques for transparent optical networks, valid for both centralized path computation (i.e., performed by a path computation element—PCE) and distributed path computation (i.e., performed by each ingress node). The proposed techniques rely on correlating the end-to-end quality of transmissions (QoT) (e.g., optical-to-signal-noise ratio—OSNR) of lightpaths already set up to evaluate the QoT of lightpaths to be established. The correlation is leveraged by two end-to-end estimation frameworks called “network kriging” and “norm l2 minimization.” Each framework is used in turn to estimate end-to-end parameters that describe the QoT for a lightpath to be established, based on measured parameters from other lightpaths that were previously established or probed. Simulations are carried out for both PCE and distributed networking scenarios on a sample optical transparent network. The proposed lightpath establishment techniques reduce the probability that a setup attempt is unsuccessful due to unacceptable QoT and reduce the number of setup attempts to successfully establish lightpaths. Simulation results are also provided to show that our techniques permit a fast convergence of QoT information at PCE or ingress nodes in the context of dynamic networks.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, “NetQuest: a flexible framework for large-scale network measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 106–119, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

B.-W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121–123, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, “Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55pm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1171–1172, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Agiltron,

Agiltron, “In-band impairment detector” [Online]. Available: http://www.agiltron.com/pdfs/impairment%20detector.pdf.

Andriolli, N.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Petersen, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, M. Scaffardi, “PMD monitoring using optical sideband filtering,” in 17th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 2009, pp. 129–130.

Angelou, M.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Antona, J.-C.

A. Morea, N. Brogard, F. Leplingard, J.-C. Antona, T. Zami, B. Lavigne, D. Bayart, “QoT function and A* routing: an optimized combination for connection search in translucent networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 42–61, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, S. Kosmalski, “Nonlinear index measurements of various fibre types over C+L bands using four-wave mixing,” in 27th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2001, pp. 270–271.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, J.-P. Faure, “Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2002, paper WX5.

Aparicio-Pardo, R.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655, Aug. 2006.

Azodolmolky, S.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Bach, R.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Bayart, D.

Bernstein, G.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, “Alternative approaches to traffic engineering database creation and maintenance for path computation elements,” IETF draft, May 2009.

Bigo, S.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, J.-P. Faure, “Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2002, paper WX5.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, S. Kosmalski, “Nonlinear index measurements of various fibre types over C+L bands using four-wave mixing,” in 27th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2001, pp. 270–271.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Bottari, G.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Brogard, N.

Canu, S.

S. Canu, C. Ong, “Learning and regularization from interpolation to approximation” [Online]. Available: http://asi.insa-rouen.fr/enseignants/scanu/Cours2.ps.

Careglio, D.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Cavaliere, F.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Cerutti, I.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Chiu, A.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Chua, D. B.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, M. Crovella, “Network kriging,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2263–2272, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Coates, M.

Y. Pointurier, M. Coates, M. Rabbat, “Active monitoring of all-optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008.

Coates, M. J.

M. J. Coates, A. O. Hero, R. Nowak, B. Yu, “Internet tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 47–65, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Crovella, M.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, M. Crovella, “Network kriging,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2263–2272, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Datta, D.

Deng, T.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS), 2004.

Einstein, D.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Farrel, A.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655, Aug. 2006.

Faure, J.-P.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, J.-P. Faure, “Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2002, paper WX5.

Feng, H.

Fishteyn, M.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

Garcia-Haro, J.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Manrubia, B.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Giorgetti, A.

Hakki, B.-W.

B.-W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121–123, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

Her, T.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

Heritage, J.

Hero, A. O.

M. J. Coates, A. O. Hero, R. Nowak, B. Yu, “Internet tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 47–65, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Iovanna, P.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Kilper, D. C.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Kolaczyk, E. D.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, M. Crovella, “Network kriging,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2263–2272, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Kosmalski, S.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, S. Kosmalski, “Nonlinear index measurements of various fibre types over C+L bands using four-wave mixing,” in 27th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2001, pp. 270–271.

Kudelko, D.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

Kulkarni, P.

P. Kulkarni, A. Tzanakaki, C. Mas Machuka, I. Tomkos, “Benefits of Q-factor based routing in WDM metro networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, pp. 981–982.

Landolsi, T.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Lavigne, B.

Le Rouzic, E.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, “Alternative approaches to traffic engineering database creation and maintenance for path computation elements,” IETF draft, May 2009.

Leplingard, F.

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

G. Martinelli, A. Zanardi, “GMPLS signaling extensions for optical impairment aware lightpath setup,” IETF draft, July 2009.

Mas Machuka, C.

P. Kulkarni, A. Tzanakaki, C. Mas Machuka, I. Tomkos, “Benefits of Q-factor based routing in WDM metro networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, pp. 981–982.

Miyata, A.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, “Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55pm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1171–1172, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Morea, A.

Mukherjee, B.

Namihira, Y.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, “Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55pm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1171–1172, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Nowak, R.

M. J. Coates, A. O. Hero, R. Nowak, B. Yu, “Internet tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 47–65, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ong, C.

S. Canu, C. Ong, “Learning and regularization from interpolation to approximation” [Online]. Available: http://asi.insa-rouen.fr/enseignants/scanu/Cours2.ps.

Ostar, L.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Pachnicke, S.

Pan, Z.

Pavon-Mariño, P.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Petersen, M.

M. Petersen, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, M. Scaffardi, “PMD monitoring using optical sideband filtering,” in 17th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 2009, pp. 129–130.

Piesiewicz, R.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Pinart, C.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Pointurier, Y.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Y. Pointurier, M. Coates, M. Rabbat, “Active monitoring of all-optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Poirrier, J.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Preiss, M.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Qiu, L.

H. Song, L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, “NetQuest: a flexible framework for large-scale network measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 106–119, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Rabbat, M.

Y. Pointurier, M. Coates, M. Rabbat, “Active monitoring of all-optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008.

Ramamurthy, B.

Reichert, J.

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Salvadori, E.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Sambo, N.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

M. Petersen, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, M. Scaffardi, “PMD monitoring using optical sideband filtering,” in 17th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 2009, pp. 129–130.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Saradhi, C. V.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Saunders, M.

M. Saunders, “Primal-dual interior method for convex objectives” [Online]. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/group/SOL/software/pdco.html.

Scaffardi, M.

M. Petersen, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, M. Scaffardi, “PMD monitoring using optical sideband filtering,” in 17th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 2009, pp. 129–130.

Secondini, M.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, M. Secondini, G. Bottari, F. Cavaliere, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, “10–40 Gbit∕s multi bit-rate GMPLS-controlled transparent optical networks in presence of cross-phase modulation,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Sole-Pareta, J.

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

H. Song, L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, “NetQuest: a flexible framework for large-scale network measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 106–119, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Spalter, S.

Strand, J.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS), 2004.

Taga, H.

Takushima, Y.

Tamm, O.

O. Tamm, “Scaling networks considering power trends,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Workshop WS4, Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Tanahashi, N.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, “Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55pm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1171–1172, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R.

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

P. Kulkarni, A. Tzanakaki, C. Mas Machuka, I. Tomkos, “Benefits of Q-factor based routing in WDM metro networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, pp. 981–982.

Tzanakaki, A.

P. Kulkarni, A. Tzanakaki, C. Mas Machuka, I. Tomkos, “Benefits of Q-factor based routing in WDM metro networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, pp. 981–982.

Valcarenghi, L.

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

Vasseur, J.-P.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655, Aug. 2006.

Voges, E.

Wielandy, S.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2267–2271, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS), 2004.

Yamauchi, H.

Yan, L.

Yang, J.-Y.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Yoshimi, H.

Yu, B.

M. J. Coates, A. O. Hero, R. Nowak, B. Yu, “Internet tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 47–65, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Zami, T.

Zanardi, A.

G. Martinelli, A. Zanardi, “GMPLS signaling extensions for optical impairment aware lightpath setup,” IETF draft, July 2009.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Zhang, C.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

Zhang, Y.

H. Song, L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, “NetQuest: a flexible framework for large-scale network measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 106–119, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, “Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55pm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1171–1172, 1994.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Strand, A. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, M. Crovella, “Network kriging,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2263–2272, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B.-W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121–123, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–5, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

M. J. Coates, A. O. Hero, R. Nowak, B. Yu, “Internet tomography,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., pp. 47–65, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

H. Song, L. Qiu, Y. Zhang, “NetQuest: a flexible framework for large-scale network measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 106–119, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Mariño, S. Azodolmolky, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole-Pareta, J. Garcia-Haro, I. Tomkos, “Offline impairment aware RWA algorithms for cross-layer planning of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2267–2271, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima, H. Yoshimi, Y. Ozeki, K. Kikuchi, H. Yamauchi, H. Taga, “In-service dispersion monitoring in 32×10.7 Gbps WDM transmission system over transatlantic distance using optical frequency-modulation method,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 257–265, 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Pachnicke, J. Reichert, S. Spalter, E. Voges, “Fast analytical assessment of the signal quality in transparent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 815–824, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (20)

M. Saunders, “Primal-dual interior method for convex objectives” [Online]. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/group/SOL/software/pdco.html.

S. Canu, C. Ong, “Learning and regularization from interpolation to approximation” [Online]. Available: http://asi.insa-rouen.fr/enseignants/scanu/Cours2.ps.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in PCE-based dynamic transparent optical networks assisted by end-to-end quality of transmission estimation,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Island of São Miguel, Azores, Portugal, 2009.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, I. Tomkos, “Lightpath establishment in distributed transparent dynamic optical networks using network kriging,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, Y. Ye, C. V. Saradhi, E. Salvadori, A. Zanardi, R. Piesiewicz, “Impairment aware networking and relevant resiliency issues in all-optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

O. Tamm, “Scaling networks considering power trends,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Workshop WS4, Vienna, Austria, 2009.

G. Martinelli, A. Zanardi, “GMPLS signaling extensions for optical impairment aware lightpath setup,” IETF draft, July 2009.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, S. Kosmalski, “Nonlinear index measurements of various fibre types over C+L bands using four-wave mixing,” in 27th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2001, pp. 270–271.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, “Alternative approaches to traffic engineering database creation and maintenance for path computation elements,” IETF draft, May 2009.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks (BROADNETS), 2004.

P. Kulkarni, A. Tzanakaki, C. Mas Machuka, I. Tomkos, “Benefits of Q-factor based routing in WDM metro networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2005, pp. 981–982.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko, C. Zhang, “Dispersion monitoring and automatic compensation based on differential nonlinear detection scheme,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2003, paper TuD5.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655, Aug. 2006.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, I. Cerutti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, J. Poirrier, E. Le Rouzic, C. Pinart, “Probe-based schemes to guarantee lightpath quality of transmission QoT in transparent optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2008.

Y. Pointurier, M. Coates, M. Rabbat, “Active monitoring of all-optical networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrative example: estimation of the end-to-end properties of lightpath LP4 given the knowledge of the end-to-end properties of lightpaths LP1, LP2, and LP3 obtained through monitoring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lightpath establishment operations in a distributed scenario with D-NKS and D-LMS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lightpath establishment operations in a PCE-based scenario with C-NKS and C-LMS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Network topology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of the instantaneous blocking rate after n { 1 , 2 , 3 } setup attempts in the distributed path computation scenario.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Blocking rate after n { 1 , 2 , 3 } setup attempts for a varying load in the distributed path computation scenario.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal evolution of the instantaneous blocking rate after n { 1 , 2 , 3 } setup attempts in the PCE-based scenario.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Blocking rate after n { 1 , 2 , 3 } setup attempts for a varying load in the PCE-based scenario.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Real and Estimated QoT Parameters and Real and Estimated Lightpath QoT for Two Sample Paths When m s Observations Are Available at s

Tables Icon

Table 2 Blocking Rate (%) After n Setup Attempts and k Lightpath Requests

Equations (5)

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y [ y m y n ] = [ G m G n ] x .
[ y 1 y 2 y 3 y 4 ] = [ 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 ] [ x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 ] .
y ̂ n = G n G m ( G n G m T ) + y m ,
min x , r x 2 2 + r 2 2
subject to G m x + D 2 r = y m , 0 x max y n .