Abstract

A quality-of-transmission- (QoT-) aware routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) technique suitable for multifiber wavelength-routed all-optical networks supporting class-based lightpaths (LPs) is proposed, where QoT is evaluated not only for any candidate LP being set up but also for already-set-up LPs. In this paper, QoT refers to the quality of transmission at the physical layer and quality of service (QoS) refers to the network-level quality issues. Four performance improvement techniques are proposed: (1) preempting an existing low-quality (LQ) LP by a high-quality (HQ) connection considering bandwidth utilization to provide better QoS for HQ traffic; (2) class-based buffering of connection requests in edge switches to provide the chance of setup for the LPs that are going to be blocked, and therefore, improving the performance of the LP setup; (3) differentiated routing in which LQ LPs are routed through large dispersion paths and HQ LPs through small dispersion paths; and (4) wavelength ordering to reduce crosstalk in switches and interchannel crosstalk on fibers. Our performance evaluations show the effectiveness of the proposed improvements in reducing blocking probability.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan. 2000.
  2. B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1061–1073, Sept. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Sparse wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 183–205, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach. Addison-Wesley, 2000.
  5. L. Li, A. K. Somani, “A new analytical model for multifiber WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2138–2145, Oct. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. K. Somani, M. Mina, L. Li, “On trading wavelengths with fibers: a cost performance based study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, pp. 944–951, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Gerstel, H. Raza, “Merits of low-density WDM line systems for long-haul networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2470–2475, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Wei, Q. Zeng, Y. Ouyang, D. Lomone, “Differentiated integrated QoS control in the optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S27–S34, Nov. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, “QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency constraints for all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 462–474, Mar. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Golmie, T. D. Ndousse, D. H. Sue, “A differentiated optical services model for WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 68–73, Feb. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 197–206, Apr. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “QoT-aware routing in impairment-constrained optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 2269–2274.
  13. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Cardillo, V. Curri, M. Mellia, “Considering transmission impairments in wavelength routed networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 2005, pp. 421–429.
  15. A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWN7.
  16. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Glasgow, 2007, pp. 2406–2411.
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed.Academic Press, 2007.
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  19. Y. Pointurier, F. Heidari, “Reinforcement learning based routing in all-optical networks with physical impairments,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems, Raleigh, NC, 2007, pp. 928–930.
  20. P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, “A QoS routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 64–74, July 2003.
  21. S.-T. Cheng, “Backtrack routing and priority-based wavelength assignment in WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–10, Jan. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Route management strategies for grade of service differentiation in optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006, pp. 2453–2458.
  23. A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Grade-of-service-based routing in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 82–87, Feb. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Huang, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 982–993, Mar. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Kakekhani, A. G. P. Rahbar, “A novel QoT-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm in all-optical networks,” in 14th Int. CSI Computer Conf., Tehran, Iran, 2009, pp. 446–451.
  27. T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 184–193.
  28. C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.
  29. T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, San Jose, CA, 2004.
  30. H. Øverby, N. Stol, “Quality of service in asynchronous bufferless optical packet switched networks,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 27, nos. 2–4, pp. 151–179, Oct. 2004.
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, “QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency constraints for all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 462–474, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Grade-of-service-based routing in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 82–87, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

H. Øverby, N. Stol, “Quality of service in asynchronous bufferless optical packet switched networks,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 27, nos. 2–4, pp. 151–179, Oct. 2004.
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, Q. Zeng, Y. Ouyang, D. Lomone, “Differentiated integrated QoS control in the optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S27–S34, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

A. K. Somani, M. Mina, L. Li, “On trading wavelengths with fibers: a cost performance based study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, pp. 944–951, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

O. Gerstel, H. Raza, “Merits of low-density WDM line systems for long-haul networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2470–2475, 2003.
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, “A QoS routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 64–74, July 2003.

2000 (3)

N. Golmie, T. D. Ndousse, D. H. Sue, “A differentiated optical services model for WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 68–73, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan. 2000.

L. Li, A. K. Somani, “A new analytical model for multifiber WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2138–2145, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Sparse wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 183–205, 1999.
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Cheng, “Backtrack routing and priority-based wavelength assignment in WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–10, Jan. 1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1061–1073, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 197–206, Apr. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed.Academic Press, 2007.

Anagnostopoulos, V.

C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.

Arujo, A. F. R.

M. A. C. Lima, A. Cesar, A. F. R. Arujo, “Optical network optimization with transmission impairments based on genetic algorithm,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf., Brazil, 2003, pp. 361–365.

Askarian, A.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWN7.

Azizoglu, M.

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 197–206, Apr. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bala, K.

T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach. Addison-Wesley, 2000.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, “QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency constraints for all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 462–474, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “QoT-aware routing in impairment-constrained optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 2269–2274.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWN7.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Glasgow, 2007, pp. 2406–2411.

Cardillo, R.

R. Cardillo, V. Curri, M. Mellia, “Considering transmission impairments in wavelength routed networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 2005, pp. 421–429.

Careglio, D.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cesar, A.

M. A. C. Lima, A. Cesar, A. F. R. Arujo, “Optical network optimization with transmission impairments based on genetic algorithm,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf., Brazil, 2003, pp. 361–365.

Cheng, S.-T.

S.-T. Cheng, “Backtrack routing and priority-based wavelength assignment in WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–10, Jan. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Curri, V.

R. Cardillo, V. Curri, M. Mellia, “Considering transmission impairments in wavelength routed networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 2005, pp. 421–429.

Datta, D.

Deng, T.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, San Jose, CA, 2004.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 184–193.

Feng, H.

Gerstel, O.

Golmie, N.

N. Golmie, T. D. Ndousse, D. H. Sue, “A differentiated optical services model for WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 68–73, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Gunkel, M.

C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.

He, J.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, “QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency constraints for all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 462–474, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “QoT-aware routing in impairment-constrained optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 2269–2274.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Glasgow, 2007, pp. 2406–2411.

Heidari, F.

Y. Pointurier, F. Heidari, “Reinforcement learning based routing in all-optical networks with physical impairments,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems, Raleigh, NC, 2007, pp. 928–930.

Heritage, J. P.

Ho, P.-H.

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, “A QoS routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 64–74, July 2003.

Huang, Y.

Iness, J.

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Sparse wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 183–205, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Jajszczyk, A.

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Grade-of-service-based routing in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 82–87, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Route management strategies for grade of service differentiation in optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006, pp. 2453–2458.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan. 2000.

Kakekhani, A.

A. Kakekhani, A. G. P. Rahbar, “A novel QoT-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm in all-optical networks,” in 14th Int. CSI Computer Conf., Tehran, Iran, 2009, pp. 446–451.

Klinkowski, M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lason, A.

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Grade-of-service-based routing in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 82–87, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Route management strategies for grade of service differentiation in optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006, pp. 2453–2458.

Li, L.

A. K. Somani, M. Mina, L. Li, “On trading wavelengths with fibers: a cost performance based study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, pp. 944–951, 2004.
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. K. Somani, “A new analytical model for multifiber WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2138–2145, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Lima, M. A. C.

M. A. C. Lima, A. Cesar, A. F. R. Arujo, “Optical network optimization with transmission impairments based on genetic algorithm,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf., Brazil, 2003, pp. 361–365.

Lomone, D.

W. Wei, Q. Zeng, Y. Ouyang, D. Lomone, “Differentiated integrated QoS control in the optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S27–S34, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Matrakidis, C.

C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.

Mellia, M.

R. Cardillo, V. Curri, M. Mellia, “Considering transmission impairments in wavelength routed networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Milan, Italy, 2005, pp. 421–429.

Mina, M.

A. K. Somani, M. Mina, L. Li, “On trading wavelengths with fibers: a cost performance based study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, pp. 944–951, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Mokhtar, A.

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 197–206, Apr. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, “A QoS routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 64–74, July 2003.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Huang, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 982–993, Mar. 2005.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan. 2000.

J. Iness, B. Mukherjee, “Sparse wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 183–205, 1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1061–1073, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Ndousse, T. D.

N. Golmie, T. D. Ndousse, D. H. Sue, “A differentiated optical services model for WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 68–73, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Y.

W. Wei, Q. Zeng, Y. Ouyang, D. Lomone, “Differentiated integrated QoS control in the optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 11, pp. S27–S34, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Øverby, H.

H. Øverby, N. Stol, “Quality of service in asynchronous bufferless optical packet switched networks,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 27, nos. 2–4, pp. 151–179, Oct. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Pareta, J. S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Careglio, J. S. Pareta, I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pointurier, Y.

Y. Pointurier, F. Heidari, “Reinforcement learning based routing in all-optical networks with physical impairments,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems, Raleigh, NC, 2007, pp. 928–930.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Glasgow, 2007, pp. 2406–2411.

A. Askarian, Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoT-aware RWA algorithms for fast failure recovery in all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper OWN7.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “QoT-aware routing in impairment-constrained optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 2269–2274.

Politi, C. (T.)

C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.

Rahbar, A. G. P.

A. Kakekhani, A. G. P. Rahbar, “A novel QoT-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm in all-optical networks,” in 14th Int. CSI Computer Conf., Tehran, Iran, 2009, pp. 446–451.

Ramamurthy, B.

Raza, H.

Rzasa, J.

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Grade-of-service-based routing in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 82–87, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Szymanski, A. Lason, J. Rzasa, A. Jajszczyk, “Route management strategies for grade of service differentiation in optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006, pp. 2453–2458.

Somani, A. K.

A. K. Somani, M. Mina, L. Li, “On trading wavelengths with fibers: a cost performance based study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, pp. 944–951, 2004.
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. K. Somani, “A new analytical model for multifiber WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2138–2145, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

C. (T.) Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007, paper JThA64.

Stern, T. E.

T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach. Addison-Wesley, 2000.

Stol, N.

H. Øverby, N. Stol, “Quality of service in asynchronous bufferless optical packet switched networks,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 27, nos. 2–4, pp. 151–179, Oct. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, “QoS-aware wavelength assignment with BER and latency constraints for all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 462–474, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, J. Xu, “Crosstalk-aware wavelength assignment in dynamic wavelength routed optical networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, San Jose, CA, 2004.

T. Deng, S. Subramaniam, “Adaptive QoS routing in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 184–193.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, “QoT-aware routing in impairment-constrained optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 2269–2274.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength-routed network model: (a) network model, (b) n × f by n × f OXC model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Edge switch architecture (configuration for ES0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the List HQ and List LQ lists.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Arrival of a connection request at an ingress switch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheduling of connection requests in an edge switch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength assignment procedure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lightpath setup algorithm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mesh network with fiber lengths (in km).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Blocking probability under different cases without OSNR evaluation: (a) case (0,0,0), (b) case (1,0,0), and (c) case (1,1,0).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Blocking probability under different cases under OSNR evaluation: (a) case (0,0,1), (b) case (1,0,1), and (c) case (1,1,1).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Performance parameters for preemption of LQ LPs: percentage of preempted LQ lightpaths for (a) case (1,1,0) and (b) case (1,1,1); percentage of bandwidth wastage for (c) case (1,1,0) and (d) case (1,1,1).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lightpath setup time: (a) case (0,0,0), (b) case (1,1,0), (c) case (1,0,1), and (d) case (1,1,1).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Acceptance ratio of connection requests based on connection hop number at ( f = 4 , W = 8 ).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Transmission line model [25].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Set of Ordered Lists for Different Values of W on a Fiber

Tables Icon

Table 2 Physical Parameters of the Network

Equations (9)

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C PMD = B × k = 1 M D PMD , k 2 d k ,
C D = B × k = 1 M α k t w ( d k mod 82 ) ,
r w , i = { t p , i t s , i t H , i if t p , i t s , i < t H , i 0 if t p , i t s , i = t H , i } .
S ( k + 1 ) = S ( k ) r = 1 T L tf ( r ) × G a ( r , λ ) ,
N DRA ( k + 1 ) = N DRA ( k ) + P a r = 2 T ( j = r T L tf ( j ) × G a ( j , λ ) ) ,
N node ( k + 1 ) = N xt ( k + 1 ) + N EDFA ( k + 1 ) ,
N xt ( k + 1 ) = N xt ( k ) r = 1 T L tf ( r ) × G a ( r , λ ) + X SW P xt ( k + 1 ) ,
N EDFA ( k + 1 ) = N EDFA ( k ) r = 1 T L tf ( r ) × G a ( r , λ ) + P EDFA ,
OSNR d = S ( d ) N DRA ( d ) + N node ( d ) .