Abstract

Without an efficient and fast failure recovery mechanism, capricious network failures can lead to severe disruption to optical multicast sessions and calamitous loss to network operators, Internet service providers, and end customers. Most research on optical multicast media traffic protection considers link and intermediate node failures but not source node failures. However, source failure recovery is more important than failure recovery of any other node or link on a multicast tree, especially for Internet Protocol television applications, which have real-time constraints. Without a source failure recovery mechanism, if the source node fails, all multicast sessions originating from the source are terminated. Simply adding the source redundancy cannot guarantee reliable optical multicast transmission in the case of catastrophic source failure. Thus, the development of efficient protection algorithms equipped with source redundancy, which can handle source failure recovery is critical to the success of optical multicast media. In this paper, we extend the flow p-cycle-based protection approach to source failure recovery on top of combined node and link failure recovery. Simulation results show that the additional capacity required for source failure recovery is comparable to the additional capacity required for (intermediate) node failure recovery, on top of link failure recovery. Both are less than 14%, with reference to link failure recovery. Results also show that the flow p-cycle-based dual-source multicast protection approach provides significant capacity saving compared with the modified optimal-path-pair-based dual-source approach.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning of survivable multicast sessions against single link failures in optical WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2587–2594, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. S. Hwang, R. Y. Cheng, W. D. Tseng, “A novel dynamic multiple ring-based local restoration for point-to-multipoint multicast traffic in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Leelarusmee, C. Boworntummarat, L. Wuttisittikulkij, “Design and analysis of five protection schemes for preplanned recovery in multicast WDM networks,” in IEEE/Sarnoff Symp. on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 167–170.
  6. H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of p-cycle based protection methods for provisioning of dynamic multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, Y. H. Jin, “Optimizations of p-cycle-based protection of optical multicast sessions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3298–3306, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Feng, L. Ruan, W. Zhang, “Intelligent p-cycle protection for dynamic multicast sessions in WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 389–399, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
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  12. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “A novel path-protecting p-cycle heuristic algorithm,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Nottingham, UK, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 203–206, paper We.B3.5.
  13. G. X. Shen, W. D. Grover, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1306–1319, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “p-cycle based tree protection of optical multicast traffic for combined link and node failure recovery in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of optical multicast protection approaches for combined node and link failure recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 4017–4025, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Optimized design of node-and-link protecting p-cycle with restorability constraints for optical multicast traffic protection,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., Hong Kong, 2009, paper ThN5.
  17. M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. D. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Atlanta, GA, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.
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  21. Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Hwang, S. Ahn, Y. Yoo, C. S. Kim, “Multiple shared backup cycles for survivable optical mesh networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 284–289, 2001.
  23. J. R. Evans, E. Minieka, Optimization Algorithms for Networks and Graphs. Marcel Dekker, 1992.

2010

2009

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “p-cycle based tree protection of optical multicast traffic for combined link and node failure recovery in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of optical multicast protection approaches for combined node and link failure recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 4017–4025, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of p-cycle based protection methods for provisioning of dynamic multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, Y. H. Jin, “Optimizations of p-cycle-based protection of optical multicast sessions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3298–3306, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

I. S. Hwang, R. Y. Cheng, W. D. Tseng, “A novel dynamic multiple ring-based local restoration for point-to-multipoint multicast traffic in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2007.
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

G. X. Shen, W. D. Grover, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1306–1319, 2003.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning of survivable multicast sessions against single link failures in optical WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2587–2594, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

H. Hwang, S. Ahn, Y. Yoo, C. S. Kim, “Multiple shared backup cycles for survivable optical mesh networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 284–289, 2001.

Barry, R. A.

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Boworntummarat, C.

P. Leelarusmee, C. Boworntummarat, L. Wuttisittikulkij, “Design and analysis of five protection schemes for preplanned recovery in multicast WDM networks,” in IEEE/Sarnoff Symp. on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 167–170.

Cha, M.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chaovalitwongse, W. A.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R. Y.

I. S. Hwang, R. Y. Cheng, W. D. Tseng, “A novel dynamic multiple ring-based local restoration for point-to-multipoint multicast traffic in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. R.

J. R. Evans, E. Minieka, Optimization Algorithms for Networks and Graphs. Marcel Dekker, 1992.

Farahmand, F.

Feng, T.

Finn, S. G.

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Gallager, R. G.

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Grover, W. D.

G. X. Shen, W. D. Grover, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1306–1319, 2003.
[CrossRef]

W. D. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Atlanta, GA, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks—Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall, 2004.

Guo, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Hwang, H.

H. Hwang, S. Ahn, Y. Yoo, C. S. Kim, “Multiple shared backup cycles for survivable optical mesh networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 284–289, 2001.

Hwang, I. S.

I. S. Hwang, R. Y. Cheng, W. D. Tseng, “A novel dynamic multiple ring-based local restoration for point-to-multipoint multicast traffic in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. H.

Jue, J. P.

Kim, C. S.

H. Hwang, S. Ahn, Y. Yoo, C. S. Kim, “Multiple shared backup cycles for survivable optical mesh networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 284–289, 2001.

Leelarusmee, P.

P. Leelarusmee, C. Boworntummarat, L. Wuttisittikulkij, “Design and analysis of five protection schemes for preplanned recovery in multicast WDM networks,” in IEEE/Sarnoff Symp. on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 167–170.

Li, L. M.

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Medard, M.

M. Medard, S. G. Finn, R. A. Barry, R. G. Gallager, “Redundant trees for preplanned recovery in arbitrary vertex-redundant or edge-redundant graphs,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 641–652, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Minieka, E.

J. R. Evans, E. Minieka, Optimization Algorithms for Networks and Graphs. Marcel Dekker, 1992.

Moon, S.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “Provisioning of survivable multicast sessions against single link failures in optical WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2587–2594, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ruan, L.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

Shaikh, A.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G. X.

G. X. Shen, W. D. Grover, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1306–1319, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Singhal, N. K.

Son, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Stamatelakis, D.

W. D. Grover, D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Atlanta, GA, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

Tang, J.

W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Thulasiraman, K.

W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tseng, W. D.

I. S. Hwang, R. Y. Cheng, W. D. Tseng, “A novel dynamic multiple ring-based local restoration for point-to-multipoint multicast traffic in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wuttisittikulkij, L.

P. Leelarusmee, C. Boworntummarat, L. Wuttisittikulkij, “Design and analysis of five protection schemes for preplanned recovery in multicast WDM networks,” in IEEE/Sarnoff Symp. on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, Princeton, NJ, 2004, pp. 167–170.

Xue, G.

W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Yates, J.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, Y.

H. Hwang, S. Ahn, Y. Yoo, C. S. Kim, “Multiple shared backup cycles for survivable optical mesh networks,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks, Scottsdale, AZ, pp. 284–289, 2001.

Yu, H.

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “p-cycle based tree protection of optical multicast traffic for combined link and node failure recovery in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of optical multicast protection approaches for combined node and link failure recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 4017–4025, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of p-cycle based protection methods for provisioning of dynamic multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, Y. H. Jin, “Optimizations of p-cycle-based protection of optical multicast sessions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3298–3306, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “A novel path-protecting p-cycle heuristic algorithm,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Nottingham, UK, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 203–206, paper We.B3.5.

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Optimized design of node-and-link protecting p-cycle with restorability constraints for optical multicast traffic protection,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., Hong Kong, 2009, paper ThN5.

Zhang, W.

T. Feng, L. Ruan, W. Zhang, “Intelligent p-cycle protection for dynamic multicast sessions in WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 389–399, 2010.
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, G. Xue, J. Tang, K. Thulasiraman, “Faster algorithms for construction of recovery trees enhancing QoP and QoS,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 642–655, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. R.

Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W. D.

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of optical multicast protection approaches for combined node and link failure recovery,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 4017–4025, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “p-cycle based tree protection of optical multicast traffic for combined link and node failure recovery in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, Y. H. Jin, “Optimizations of p-cycle-based protection of optical multicast sessions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 3298–3306, 2008.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Performance evaluation of p-cycle based protection methods for provisioning of dynamic multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “Optimized design of node-and-link protecting p-cycle with restorability constraints for optical multicast traffic protection,” in 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., Hong Kong, 2009, paper ThN5.

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “A novel path-protecting p-cycle heuristic algorithm,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Nottingham, UK, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 203–206, paper We.B3.5.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw.

M. Cha, W. A. Chaovalitwongse, J. Yates, A. Shaikh, S. Moon, “Efficient and scalable provisioning of always-on multicast streaming services,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 2825–2839, 2009.
[CrossRef]

ETRI J.

C. Lu, H. Luo, S. Wang, L. M. Li, “A novel shared segment protection algorithm for multicast sessions in mesh WDM networks,” ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 329–336, 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

F. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, “p-cycle based tree protection of optical multicast traffic for combined link and node failure recovery in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Zhang, W. D. Zhong, B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 467–469, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Son, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun.

H. Luo, L. M. Li, H. Yu, S. Wang, “Achieving shared protection for dynamic multicast sessions in survivable mesh WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 83–95, 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. X. Shen, W. D. Grover, “Extending the p-cycle concept to path segment protection for span and node failure recovery,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1306–1319, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Types of dual-source multicast trees: (a) parallel-dual-source tree with one bridge (B) node (type a), (b) parallel-dual-source tree with bidirectional link(s) (type b), (c) serial-dual-source tree with s 1 as the terminal source (type c), (d) serial-dual-source tree with s 2 as the terminal source (type d), and (e) dual-source link-disjoint tree ( 1 + 1 dedicated protection) (type e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the flow p-cycle-based dual-source multicast protection approach: (a) a flow p-cycle (cycle 1: 5 8 9 3 4 5 ) shown as a dashed line and a dual-source multicast tree ( Φ 1 = { 12 , 6 , 1 , 3 , 9 , 11 , 13 } ) shown as a solid line, (b) link failure recovery for Φ 1 , (c) intermediate node failure recovery for Φ 1 , and (d) primary source failure recovery for Φ 1 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of spare capacity sharing among multiple trees.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Test networks: (a) COST239 network, (b) NSFNET network.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total capacity comparison for SCNLR (solid traces) and CNLR (dashed traces): (a) COST239 network, (b) NSFNET network.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Cycle Hop Limit ( H ) Effect on the Required Total Capacity for SCNLR in the COST239 Network ( k = 5 )

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Table 2 Comparison Between the Average Total Capacity (TC) Required by 20 Random Multicast Sessions for the LR, CNLR, and SCNLR Cases in the COST239 Network ( k = 5 )

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Table 3 Comparison of the Average Total Computational Time for Setting Up a Multicast Session in the COST239 Network for LR, CNLR, and SCNLR in the Static Traffic Environment ( k = 5 )

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Table 4 Comparison of the Number of Variables and Constraints in Different ILP Formulations for SCNLR

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m n E c m n w m n
n P s 1 d , s 1 n i = 1 d , i ,
n P s 1 d , n s 1 i = 0 d , i ,
n P s 1 d , d n i = 0 d , i ,
n P s 1 d , n d i = 1 d , i ,
n P s 1 d , n m i = n P s 1 d , m n i m n E , d , i , m s , d ,
n Q s 2 d , s 2 n i = 1 d , i ,
n Q s 2 d , n s 2 i = 0 d , i ,
n Q s 2 d , d n i = 0 d , i ,
n Q s 2 d , n d i = 1 d , i ,
n Q s 2 d , n m i = n Q s 2 d , m n i m n E , d , i , m s , d ,
P s 1 d , m n i w m n i 1 m n E , d , i ,
Q s 2 d , m n i w m n i 1 m n E , d , i ,
w m n = i = 1 | T | w m n i m n E ,
w m n w m n _ max m n E .
ES f j = [ W j , E + W j , N ] | c j | .
m n E c m n v m n
j C f m n j , i b m n j , i w m n i i T , m n E ,
f j τ T f m n j , i j C , m n E ,
j C f m j , i a m j , i w m i i T , m s , d ,
f j τ T f m j , i j C , m s , d ,
v m n = j C α j , m n f j m n E ,
w m n + v m n t m n m n E .