Abstract

We propose a wavelength assignment algorithm that offers full-mesh node connectivity of two concatenated, bidirectional ring networks. This algorithm is proved to minimize the necessary number of wavelengths. We also describe three schemes that can reduce the switch scale at the ring-concatenating nodes: separation of intra-ring and inter-ring operation, hierarchical optical path switching, and introduction of efficient protection switching. We clarify that the proposed node architectures applying the described schemes reduce the switch size by 50% to 75% compared with the conventional arrangement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. I. Way, “ROADM technology review: why, when, where, and how?” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 63880A, Oct. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, “DWDM system architecture and design trade-offs,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NThC2.
  3. M. Li, P. Wesolowski, L. Nederlof, M. Vaughn, M. Brisker, R. Wagner, “USA metropolitan network value opportunities,” in Proc. OFC 2003, Mar. 2003, paper WQ4.
  4. M. Mezhoudi, R. Feldman, R. Goudreault, “The value of multiple degree ROADMs on metropolitan network economics,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NTh4.
  5. M. J. Li, M. J. Soulliere, D. J. Tebben, L. Nederlof, M. D. Vaughn, R. E. Wagner, “Transparent optical protection ring architectures and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 3388–3403, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Fang, R. Iraschko, F. Sharma, “All-optical four-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1302–1308, Aug. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hayashi, K. Ohara, H. Tanaka, M. Daikoku, T. Otani, M. Suzuki, “Highly reliable optical bidirectional path switched ring networks applicable to photonic IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 356–364, Feb. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Ruhl, T. Anderson, “Cost-effective metro WDM network architectures,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper WL1.
  9. V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2006, paper O.14.1.
  10. V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Swithcing, 2007, paper TuA2.5.
  11. T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.
  12. K. Noguchi, M. Koga, “Reliability and lifetime estimation for large scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E86-B, no. 5, pp. 1530–1538, May 2003.
  13. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Erlebach, K. Jansen, “Scheduling of virtual connections in fast networks,” in Proc. 4th Parallel System Algorithms Workshop, 1996, pp. 11–32.
  15. T. Lee, K. Lee, S. Park, “Optimal routing and wavelength assignment in WDM ring networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2146–2154, Oct. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Sahin, M. Azizoglu, “An effective wavelength assignment algorithm for service and restoration in WDM rings,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper TuO4.
  17. G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “Scalability of a novel wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM shared protection rings,” in Proc. OFC 1998, 1998, paper ThU4.
  18. G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “A novel wavelength assignment algorithm for 4-fiber WDM self-healing rings,” in Proc. ICC ’98, June 1998, pp. 197–201.
  19. R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Multiwavelength optical networks with limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 744–754, Dec. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Gerstel, S. Kutten, “Dynamic wavelength allocation in all-optical ring networks,” in Proc. ICC ’97, pp. 432–436, June 1997.
  21. X. Cao, V. Anand, C. Qiao, “Waveband switching in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105–112, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Noirie, C. Blaizotm, E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross-connect,” in Proc. ECOC 2000, pp. 269–270, Oct. 2000.
  23. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 454–467, Mar. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” in Proc. ECOC 2006, Sept. 2006, paper Tu.3.3.6.
  26. L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, E. Dotaro, “Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001.
  27. S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Optical switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 638809, Oct. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: the Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS, D. Clark, ed. Elsevier, 2004.
  29. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for connection of two ROADM rings using hierarchical optical path routing,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, Aug. 2007, paper TuA2.3.
  30. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for concatenation of ROADM rings,” in Proc. ECOC 2007, Sept. 2007, paper 10. 5. 2.
  31. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proc. ECOC2008, Sept. 2008.
  32. S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, Aug. 2008, paper S-04–1.
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 454–467, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Optical switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 638809, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

W. I. Way, “ROADM technology review: why, when, where, and how?” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 63880A, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

X. Cao, V. Anand, C. Qiao, “Waveband switching in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105–112, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

M. Hayashi, K. Ohara, H. Tanaka, M. Daikoku, T. Otani, M. Suzuki, “Highly reliable optical bidirectional path switched ring networks applicable to photonic IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 356–364, Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, M. Koga, “Reliability and lifetime estimation for large scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E86-B, no. 5, pp. 1530–1538, May 2003.

2000 (1)

T. Lee, K. Lee, S. Park, “Optimal routing and wavelength assignment in WDM ring networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2146–2154, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Multiwavelength optical networks with limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 744–754, Dec. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, C. Qiao, “Waveband switching in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105–112, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

F. Ruhl, T. Anderson, “Cost-effective metro WDM network architectures,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper WL1.

Azizoglu, M.

G. Sahin, M. Azizoglu, “An effective wavelength assignment algorithm for service and restoration in WDM rings,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper TuO4.

Bala, K.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “A novel wavelength assignment algorithm for 4-fiber WDM self-healing rings,” in Proc. ICC ’98, June 1998, pp. 197–201.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “Scalability of a novel wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM shared protection rings,” in Proc. OFC 1998, 1998, paper ThU4.

Basch, B.

B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, “DWDM system architecture and design trade-offs,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NThC2.

Blaizotm, C.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizotm, E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross-connect,” in Proc. ECOC 2000, pp. 269–270, Oct. 2000.

Bowers, J. E.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2006, paper O.14.1.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Swithcing, 2007, paper TuA2.5.

Brisker, M.

M. Li, P. Wesolowski, L. Nederlof, M. Vaughn, M. Brisker, R. Wagner, “USA metropolitan network value opportunities,” in Proc. OFC 2003, Mar. 2003, paper WQ4.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, C. Qiao, “Waveband switching in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105–112, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. K.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “Scalability of a novel wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM shared protection rings,” in Proc. OFC 1998, 1998, paper ThU4.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “A novel wavelength assignment algorithm for 4-fiber WDM self-healing rings,” in Proc. ICC ’98, June 1998, pp. 197–201.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Daikoku, M.

Demeester, P.

J. P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: the Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS, D. Clark, ed. Elsevier, 2004.

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizotm, E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross-connect,” in Proc. ECOC 2000, pp. 269–270, Oct. 2000.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, E. Dotaro, “Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001.

Egorov, R.

B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, “DWDM system architecture and design trade-offs,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NThC2.

Ellinas, G.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “Scalability of a novel wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM shared protection rings,” in Proc. OFC 1998, 1998, paper ThU4.

G. Ellinas, K. Bala, G. K. Chang, “A novel wavelength assignment algorithm for 4-fiber WDM self-healing rings,” in Proc. ICC ’98, June 1998, pp. 197–201.

Erlebach, T.

T. Erlebach, K. Jansen, “Scheduling of virtual connections in fast networks,” in Proc. 4th Parallel System Algorithms Workshop, 1996, pp. 11–32.

Fang, X.

Feldman, R.

M. Mezhoudi, R. Feldman, R. Goudreault, “The value of multiple degree ROADMs on metropolitan network economics,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NTh4.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, S. Kutten, “Dynamic wavelength allocation in all-optical ring networks,” in Proc. ICC ’97, pp. 432–436, June 1997.

Goh, T.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Goudreault, R.

M. Mezhoudi, R. Feldman, R. Goudreault, “The value of multiple degree ROADMs on metropolitan network economics,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NTh4.

Gringeri, S.

B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, “DWDM system architecture and design trade-offs,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NThC2.

Hasegawa, H.

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 454–467, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Optical switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 638809, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” in Proc. ECOC 2006, Sept. 2006, paper Tu.3.3.6.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proc. ECOC2008, Sept. 2008.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for connection of two ROADM rings using hierarchical optical path routing,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, Aug. 2007, paper TuA2.3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, Aug. 2008, paper S-04–1.
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for concatenation of ROADM rings,” in Proc. ECOC 2007, Sept. 2007, paper 10. 5. 2.

Hayashi, M.

Helkey, R. J.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2006, paper O.14.1.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Swithcing, 2007, paper TuA2.5.

Hirota, H.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Iraschko, R.

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for concatenation of ROADM rings,” in Proc. ECOC 2007, Sept. 2007, paper 10. 5. 2.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proc. ECOC2008, Sept. 2008.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for connection of two ROADM rings using hierarchical optical path routing,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, Aug. 2007, paper TuA2.3.

Ishii, M.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Jansen, K.

T. Erlebach, K. Jansen, “Scheduling of virtual connections in fast networks,” in Proc. 4th Parallel System Algorithms Workshop, 1996, pp. 11–32.

Jerphagnon, O.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2006, paper O.14.1.

Kakehashi, S.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Optical switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 638809, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Kaman, V.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, 2006, paper O.14.1.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Swithcing, 2007, paper TuA2.5.

Kamei, S.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Kaneko, A.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Koga, M.

K. Noguchi, M. Koga, “Reliability and lifetime estimation for large scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E86-B, no. 5, pp. 1530–1538, May 2003.

Kutten, S.

O. Gerstel, S. Kutten, “Dynamic wavelength allocation in all-optical ring networks,” in Proc. ICC ’97, pp. 432–436, June 1997.

Lee, K.

T. Lee, K. Lee, S. Park, “Optimal routing and wavelength assignment in WDM ring networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2146–2154, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

T. Lee, K. Lee, S. Park, “Optimal routing and wavelength assignment in WDM ring networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2146–2154, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, P. Wesolowski, L. Nederlof, M. Vaughn, M. Brisker, R. Wagner, “USA metropolitan network value opportunities,” in Proc. OFC 2003, Mar. 2003, paper WQ4.

Li, M. J.

Mezhoudi, M.

M. Mezhoudi, R. Feldman, R. Goudreault, “The value of multiple degree ROADMs on metropolitan network economics,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper NTh4.

Mitsui, S.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, Aug. 2008, paper S-04–1.
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Nederlof, L.

M. J. Li, M. J. Soulliere, D. J. Tebben, L. Nederlof, M. D. Vaughn, R. E. Wagner, “Transparent optical protection ring architectures and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 3388–3403, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. Li, P. Wesolowski, L. Nederlof, M. Vaughn, M. Brisker, R. Wagner, “USA metropolitan network value opportunities,” in Proc. OFC 2003, Mar. 2003, paper WQ4.

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, M. Koga, “Reliability and lifetime estimation for large scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E86-B, no. 5, pp. 1530–1538, May 2003.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizotm, E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross-connect,” in Proc. ECOC 2000, pp. 269–270, Oct. 2000.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, E. Dotaro, “Impact of intermediate traffic grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001.

Ogawa, I.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

Ohara, K.

Otani, T.

Park, S.

T. Lee, K. Lee, S. Park, “Optimal routing and wavelength assignment in WDM ring networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2146–2154, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Pickavet, M.

J. P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: the Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLS, D. Clark, ed. Elsevier, 2004.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, C. Qiao, “Waveband switching in optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105–112, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Multiwavelength optical networks with limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 744–754, Dec. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, F.

F. Ruhl, T. Anderson, “Cost-effective metro WDM network architectures,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper WL1.

Sahin, G.

G. Sahin, M. Azizoglu, “An effective wavelength assignment algorithm for service and restoration in WDM rings,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Mar. 2001, paper TuO4.

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, G. Sasaki, “Multiwavelength optical networks with limited wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 744–754, Dec. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 454–467, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Optical switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6388, paper 638809, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” in Proc. ECOC 2006, Sept. 2006, paper Tu.3.3.6.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proc. ECOC2008, Sept. 2008.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for connection of two ROADM rings using hierarchical optical path routing,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, Aug. 2007, paper TuA2.3.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Simple node architectures for concatenation of ROADM rings,” in Proc. ECOC 2007, Sept. 2007, paper 10. 5. 2.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, Aug. 2008, paper S-04–1.
[CrossRef]

Sharma, F.

Sohma, S.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Proc. OFC 2006, Mar. 2006, paper OTuF3.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two ring-concatenating arrangements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conventional ring-concatenating node architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of protection switching on a concatenated ring.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ring-concatenating node architectures adopting switch scale reduction strategies defined in Table 2 for ring-concatenating arrangement in Fig 1(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ring-concatenating node architectures adopting switch scale reduction strategies defined in Table 2 for ring-concatenating arrangement in Fig 1(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Details about the switch shown in Fig. 5(c).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of protection switching for node strategy four.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switch size versus ratio of inter-ring traffic to total traffic.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Switch size versus the number of wavelengths multiplexed per fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Concept of reserve switch.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Impact on switch size of reserve switch for strategy two.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Ring-connection node architecture for implementing sharable switches.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Switch scale versus margin of prediction error.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Example of wavelength assignment for hierarchical switching.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inter-ring Traffic Classification

Tables Icon

Table 2 Possible Combinations of Three Schemes and Other Characteristics

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

max { J 1 , J 2 } + I # of wavelengths ,
α L = α L if α α ,
( 1 α ) L = ( 1 α ) L if α α ,
0 α β 1 ,
0 α + β 1 .