Abstract

The Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is one of the most viable optical access technologies for the provision of broadband services to users. However, the scalability of EPON has become a limiting factor in realizing network architecture with large coverage and a high number of subscribers. EPONs with longer reach and higher split ratios have been successfully demonstrated by researchers to overcome the physical limitations of reach and split ratio of the standard PON architecture. Nevertheless, the 1 Gb/s bandwidth that is shared among a larger number of users degrades the efficiency of EPON especially in terms of the data rate utilized by each user. In this paper, we propose a simple active remote node (RN) with a media access control (MAC) forwarding scheme for an EPON network to achieve improved network performance and overcome bandwidth limitations arising from higher split ratios. The scheme works in conjunction with EPON protocols and does not modify the underlying functionalities of the network. The simulation results show a large improvement in latency (up to 90ms of improvement) and up to 18% of enhancement in capacity or a 16% increase in the number of users with the use of the active RN structure.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Anderson, “PONs offer higher speeds, lower price per megabit,” http://lw.pennnet.com/display_article/320162/13/ARTCL/none/none/1PONs-offer-higher-speeds,-lower-price-per-megabit/.
  2. K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, “PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Roberts, M. Rude, J. Solum, “Cost effective high split ratios for EPON,” presented at the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet in the First Mile Study Group, Portland, OR, July 2001.
  4. X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.
  5. D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.
  6. I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fiber access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, pp. 104–114, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.
  9. G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km long reach DWDM SuperPON with upstream bit rates of 2.5 Gb∕s and 10 Gb∕s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2005 OSA Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, 2005, paper OFI1.
  10. D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Networks Mag., vol. 21, pp. 5–11, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb∕s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693, Mar. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Low-cost optical access system using repeater, VCSEL transmitters and multi-mode fibers,” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2006, pp. 135–138.
  13. C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, “Active remote node with layer two forwarding for improving performance of EPON,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Global Telecommunications, 2008, pp. 1–5.
  14. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2004.
  15. M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modelling,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Communications, 2007, pp. 2162–2167.
  19. M. T. Ngo, A. Gravey, “A versatile control plane for EPON-based FTTX access networks,” in Proc. Next Generation Internet Networks, 2009, pp. 1–8.

2009 (1)

Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, “PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2002 (2)

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fiber access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modelling,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, “PONs offer higher speeds, lower price per megabit,” http://lw.pennnet.com/display_article/320162/13/ARTCL/none/none/1PONs-offer-higher-speeds,-lower-price-per-megabit/.

Assi, C. M.

R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Communications, 2007, pp. 2162–2167.

Attygalle, M.

C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, “Active remote node with layer two forwarding for improving performance of EPON,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Global Telecommunications, 2008, pp. 1–5.

Baekelandt, B.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Bauwelinck, J.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Chae, C. J.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Low-cost optical access system using repeater, VCSEL transmitters and multi-mode fibers,” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2006, pp. 135–138.

Chan, C. A.

C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, “Active remote node with layer two forwarding for improving performance of EPON,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Global Telecommunications, 2008, pp. 1–5.

Chen, W.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Chow, C. W.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Christensen, B.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Davey, R.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fiber access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

De Mulder, B.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

De Ridder, T.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Dhaini, R.

R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Communications, 2007, pp. 2162–2167.

Elbers, J.-P.

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, “PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Gravey, A.

M. T. Ngo, A. Gravey, “A versatile control plane for EPON-based FTTX access networks,” in Proc. Next Generation Internet Networks, 2009, pp. 1–8.

Grobe, K.

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, “PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.-F.

Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, P.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2004.

Krimmel, H.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Lealman, I.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Li, H.

Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lobel, M.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Maier, M.

R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Communications, 2007, pp. 2162–2167.

Martin, C. M.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Melange, C.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Mitchell, J. E.

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Ngo, M. T.

M. T. Ngo, A. Gravey, “A versatile control plane for EPON-based FTTX access networks,” in Proc. Next Generation Internet Networks, 2009, pp. 1–8.

Nirmalathas, A.

C. A. Chan, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, “Active remote node with layer two forwarding for improving performance of EPON,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Global Telecommunications, 2008, pp. 1–5.

Ossieur, P.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, “The future of fiber access systems,” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Q, Y.-J.

Q. Liu, H. Li, Y.-F. Ji, Y.-J. Q, “Resource allocation in an Intserv/Diffserv integrated EPON system,” The J. China Univ. Posts and Telecom., vol. 16, pp. 108–113, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Qiu, X. Z.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Randel, S.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Roberts, H.

H. Roberts, M. Rude, J. Solum, “Cost effective high split ratios for EPON,” presented at the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet in the First Mile Study Group, Portland, OR, July 2001.

Rohde, H.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Rude, M.

H. Roberts, M. Rude, J. Solum, “Cost effective high split ratios for EPON,” presented at the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet in the First Mile Study Group, Portland, OR, July 2001.

Shami, A.

R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Conf. on Communications, 2007, pp. 2162–2167.

Shang, S. Q.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Shea, D.

D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, D. Shea, P. Kirkpatrick, S. Q. Shang, M. Lobel, B. Christensen, “10 Gbit∕s bidirectional transmission in 1024-way split, 110 km reach, PON system using commercial transceiver modules, super FEC and EDC,” in Proc. 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2005, pp. 135–138.

Shea, D. P.

Sherman, R.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modelling,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Solum, J.

H. Roberts, M. Rude, J. Solum, “Cost effective high split ratios for EPON,” presented at the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet in the First Mile Study Group, Portland, OR, July 2001.

Talli, G.

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km long reach DWDM SuperPON with upstream bit rates of 2.5 Gb∕s and 10 Gb∕s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2005 OSA Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, 2005, paper OFI1.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Taqqu, M. S.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modelling,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. 12th European Conf. Networks and Opical Communication, 2007, pp. 493–500.

Townsend, P. D.

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km long reach DWDM SuperPON with upstream bit rates of 2.5 Gb∕s and 10 Gb∕s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2005 OSA Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, 2005, paper OFI1.

Tran, A. V.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Low-cost optical access system using repeater, VCSEL transmitters and multi-mode fibers,” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2006, pp. 135–138.

Tucker, R. S.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, “Low-cost optical access system using repeater, VCSEL transmitters and multi-mode fibers,” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2006, pp. 135–138.

Van de Voorde, I.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Verhulst, D.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Verschuere, S.

X. Z. Qiu, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, S. Verschuere, D. Verhulst, B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, C. Melange, J. Vandewege, “High performance burst-mode upstream transmission for next generation PONs,” in Proc. Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronics Conf., 24–27 October 2006, pp. 1–3.

Willinger, W.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modelling,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y. C.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

64 ONU EPON tree architecture with active RN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Active RN functional block diagram built on top of a repeater

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frame-redirecting flow chart in the active RN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum total buffer size in RN (B1 + B2 + B3 + B4).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Improvement in mean delay difference with RN in EPON for (a) local intrasubnet traffic and (b) downstream traffic from the OLT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Downstream bandwidth improvement per ONU for different amount of local intrasubnet traffic, where (a), (b), (c), and (d) show improvement for 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of local intrasubnet traffic, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Summary of Figs. 6(a), 6(b), 6(c), 6(d). Difference in downstream bandwidth per ONU (total of 64 ONUs) shows the total downstream data rate received by each ONU on the EPON with a RN minus the downstream data rate received by each ONU without a RN.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Increase in number of ONUs compared with the EPON without an active RN structure with the same upstream and downstream Internet data rate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Downstream data rate received per ONU (for a total of 64 ONUs).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total downstream data rate received by all ONUs (sum of n ONU downstream data rate)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation Parameters