Abstract

We discuss the change in the number of optical signal channels transmitted through wavelength division multiplexing links in a transparent optical network and report detailed measurement results of optical signal channel power variation in an experimental setup configured with realistic large-scale photonic cross-connect (PXC) switches fabricated using three-dimensional microelectromechanical system (3D MEMS) technology. The scale of the PXC-based network ranges from 100to300km to simulate a realistic long-haul optical network using 100-km-long dispersion-shifted fibers and L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with a high-speed automatic gain control circuit. The measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of stable operation of a transparent optical network by using these state-of-the-art technologies with proper parameter settings.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

X. Ma, G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. S16–S23, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York: Academic Press, 1989.

Aksyuk, V. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Al-Salameh, D.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

An, F.-T.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. C.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Arney, S.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, N. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. B.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. New York: Wiley, 1994.

Farber, G.

Frahm, R. E.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D. C.

Gasparyan, A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Gates, J. V.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Gonzales, E.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

Gorinevsky, D.

Haueis, M.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. S.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

Jerphagnon, O.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kaman, V.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kantor, K.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

Karasek, M.

Kazovsky, L. G.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Keating, A.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kolodner, P. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kraus, J. S.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Krummrich, P. M.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

Kumar, B.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kuo, G.-S.

X. Ma, G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. S16–S23, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lichtenwalner, C. P.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lieuwen, D. F.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lifton, V.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lumish, S.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

Ma, X.

X. Ma, G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. S16–S23, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Maeda, H.

Marhic, M. E.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, T.

Moesle, A.

Murakami, M.

Neilson, D. T.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Novak, S.

Nuzman, C. J.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Papazian, A. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Pusarla, C.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, D. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Rapp, L.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

Ryf, R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Sechrist, J. R.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Shea, H. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sheih, S.-J.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

Shimizu, A.

J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, “Free-space optical interconnection system with MEMS mirrors,” in EOS Topical Meeting Optics in Computing, 2004, pp. 96–97.

Simon, M. E.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

Sulhoff, J. W.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

Sun, Y.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

Tada, Y.

Takeuchi, N.

J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, “Free-space optical interconnection system with MEMS mirrors,” in EOS Topical Meeting Optics in Computing, 2004, pp. 96–97.

Tomkos, I.

N. Madamopoulos, D. C. Friedman, I. Tomkos, “Study of the performance of a transparent and reconfigurable metropolitan area network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 937–945, June 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, I. Tomkos, “Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,” in ICTON’03, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 41–46.

Turukhin, A. V.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, I. Tomkos, “Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,” in ICTON’03, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 41–46.

Weiss, A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

White, C. A.

Willems, F. W.

Xu, Y.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Yam, S. S.-H.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, J.

J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, “Free-space optical interconnection system with MEMS mirrors,” in EOS Topical Meeting Optics in Computing, 2004, pp. 96–97.

Yamamoto, T.

J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, “Free-space optical interconnection system with MEMS mirrors,” in EOS Topical Meeting Optics in Computing, 2004, pp. 96–97.

Yuan, S.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zacharopoulos, I.

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, I. Tomkos, “Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,” in ICTON’03, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 41–46.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

X. Ma, G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. S16–S23, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, Y. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, “Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 571–578, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1537–1539, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

Other (8)

A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, I. Tomkos, “Optical add/drop multiplexers and optical cross-connects for wavelength routed networks,” in ICTON’03, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 41–46.

J. Yamaguchi, T. Yamamoto, N. Takeuchi, A. Shimizu, “Free-space optical interconnection system with MEMS mirrors,” in EOS Topical Meeting Optics in Computing, 2004, pp. 96–97.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers. New York: Wiley, 1994.

S.-J. Sheih, J. W. Sulhoff, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, “Dynamic behavior in L-band EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, 2000, paper WG2, pp. 105–107.

E. S. Hu, T. Sakamoto, S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “Fast transient response of L-band tellurite-based EDFAs and their optically gain-clamped behavior,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, paper ThR3, pp. 513–515.
[CrossRef]

ITU-T Recommendation G.661, “Definition and test methods for the relevant generic parameters of optical amplifier devices and subsystems.”

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York: Academic Press, 1989.

A. V. Turukhin, D. Al-Salameh, E. Gonzales, P. M. Krummrich, S. Lumish, L. Rapp, “Time-resolved measurements of Q-factor in 560-km transmission link with transient control amplifiers,” in ECOC 2005, Glasgow, 2005, paper We2.3.4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PXC node and WDM line concatenation as part of optical transparent network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal channel allocation in the WDM line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration and characteristics of an L-band EDFA with AGC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Definition of parameters for measurement of optical transient response.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement setup for optical transient response.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power excursion of surviving channel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switching waveform of PXC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical power change of surviving channel for an add/drop ratio of 15 dB .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical power level change of surviving channel for various add/drop cases.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N C N = k = 1 N 1 ( N k ) = N ( N 1 ) 2 .
N C W = l = 1 M M ! ( M l ) ! l ! = 2 M 1 .