Elastic optical networks (EONs) are able to provide high spectrum utilization efficiency due to flexibility in resource assignment. In translucent EONs, by employing regenerators and using advanced modulation formats for transmission, spectrum efficiency can be further improved. Survivability is regarded as an important aspect of EONs, and p-cycle protection is considered to be an attractive scheme due to its fast restoration and high protection efficiency. In this paper, we propose methods for evaluating and selecting p-cycles for both link protection (LP) and failure-independent path protection (FIPP) to survive single-link failures. After considering the various factors that affect the performance of a p-cycle, we propose two evaluation metrics for LP and FIPP, namely, individual p-cycle cost and set of cycles cost. Based on these metrics, we propose two algorithms for selecting a set of p-cycles in translucent EONs: Traffic Independent P-cycle Selection (TIPS), which selects a set of cycles without knowledge of the traffic, and Traffic-Oriented P-cycle Selection (TOPS), which takes given traffic information into account. A routing and spectrum assignment algorithm is designed for translucent EONs, and our p-cycle design algorithms are evaluated using both static and dynamic traffic models. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms have better performance than commonly used baseline algorithms. We also compare the performance of LP p-cycles and FIPP p-cycles.
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