Abstract

Considering middle-term predictions of the need for commercial 10-Tb/s optical interfaces working in 1-P b/s optical transport systems by 2024 and recalling the introduction of the optical bypass when entering the wavelength-abundant era in the early 2000s, we re-evaluate the values of hierarchical optical network architecture in light of the forthcoming massive spatial division multiplexing (SDM) era. We introduce a spatial channel (SCh) network (SCN) architecture, where the SDM layer is explicitly defined as a new networking layer that supports the new multiplexing technology of SDM. In an SCN, optical channels (OChs) accommodated in an express SCh bypass the overlying wavelength cross-connects (WXCs) using spatial cross-connects (SXCs) on the route. As one challenge that SCNs will present, we point out that an excessively large SXC insertion loss reduces the optical reach for spectrally groomed OChs. We show that the optical reach of spectrally groomed OChs can be maintained at almost the same level as that for an OCh transported through a conventional single-layer WDM network thanks to the low-loss features of commercially available spatial switches and foreseeable low-loss SDM multiplexers and demultiplexers. As another challenge, we discuss how to achieve growable, reliable, and cost-effective SXCs. We propose two SXC architectures based on sub-matrix switches and core-selective switches. Simple cost assessment shows that the proposed architectures are more cost-effective than the full-size matrix switch-based architecture with 1+1 equipment protection and conventional stacked WXC architecture.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (4)

2015 (4)

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical fiber networks: challenges and solutions,” Opt. Photon. News, vol.  26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Mar.2015.
[Crossref]

D. M. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM- SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 60–68, 2015.
[Crossref]

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

E. Modiano and A. Narula-Tam, “Mechanisms for providing optical bypass in WDM-based networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 9–16, Jan.2000.

1999 (1)

Abakoumov, D.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Abedin, K.

Abedin, K. S.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Alam, S. U.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Amaya, N.

Anand, V.

Awaji, Y.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Bartos, A.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Baxter, G.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Berthold, J.

Betoule, C.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Blair, L.

Blau, M.

D. M. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM- SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 60–68, 2015.
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Bosco, G.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, and A. Carena, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Cao, X.

Carena, A.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, and A. Carena, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper PD2.6.

Chen, H.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Clarke, I.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Cohen, G.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Cugini, F.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, M.

Cvijetic, N.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Essiambre, R. J.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Feuer, M. D.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Fini, J. F.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Fini, J. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Frenkel, B.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Frisken, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Gerstel, O.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Giannone, F.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, and T. Kudou, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 2, pp. 356–358.

Haramaty, T.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Harel, R.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Hasegawa, H.

Hashimoto, R.

Henning, I.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

Ikuma, Y.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Inoue, A.

O. Shimakawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Pluggable fan-out realizing physical-contact and low coupling loss for multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OM3I.2.

Irfan, M.

Isaac, R.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
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M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Itoh, M.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Iwai, Y.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno and Y. Mori, “Unified architecture of an integrated SDM-WSS employing a PLC-based spatial beam transformer array for various types of SDM fibers,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. A198–A206, 2017.
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M. Jinno, “Elastic optical networking: roles and benefits in beyond 100-Gb/s era,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  35, no. 5, pp. 1116–1124, 2017.
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D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
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M. Jinno, J. Kani, and K. Oguchi, “Ultra-wide-band WDM networks and supporting technologies,” in Core Networks and Network Management (NOC ’99), 1999, pp. 90–97.

M. Jinno, “Spatial channel network (SCN) architecture employing growable and reliable spatial channel cross-connects toward massive SDM era,” in Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC), 2018, paper Fr3C.5.

M. Jinno, “Added value of introducing spatial bypass into WDM/SDM networks: Gaussian-noise model analysis for spatially-bypassed and spectrally-groomed optical channels,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2018, paper We3D.6.

Y. Mori, K. Yamashita, and M. Jinno, “Feasibility demonstration of integrated fractional joint switching WSS applicable for few-mode multicore fiber,” in Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC), 2018, paper Fr3C.3.

Jung, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Kamei, S.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Kang, Q.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Kani, J.

M. Jinno, J. Kani, and K. Oguchi, “Ultra-wide-band WDM networks and supporting technologies,” in Core Networks and Network Management (NOC ’99), 1999, pp. 90–97.

Klaus, W.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
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G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Klonidis, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

Kudou, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, and T. Kudou, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 2, pp. 356–358.

LaRochelle, S.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Liu, L.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper PD2.6.

Lopez, V.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Luis, R. S.

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Marom, D. M.

D. M. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM- SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 60–68, 2015.
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L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Miron, L.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Miyazawa, T.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Modiano, E.

E. Modiano and A. Narula-Tam, “Mechanisms for providing optical bypass in WDM-based networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 9–16, Jan.2000.

Mori, Y.

Moriwaki, O.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Narula-Tam, A.

E. Modiano and A. Narula-Tam, “Mechanisms for providing optical bypass in WDM-based networks,” Opt. Netw. Mag., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 9–16, Jan.2000.

Neilson, D. T.

Nejabati, R.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Nemoto, N.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Niwa, M.

Oguchi, K.

M. Jinno, J. Kani, and K. Oguchi, “Ultra-wide-band WDM networks and supporting technologies,” in Core Networks and Network Management (NOC ’99), 1999, pp. 90–97.

Okuno, M.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Palkopoulou, E.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Pascar, L.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Peckham, D. W.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper PD2.6.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.
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P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, and A. Carena, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OW1H.3.

Poole, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Proietti, R.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Puttnam, B. J.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Qiao, C.

Qin, C.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Ryf, R.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Sahu, J. K.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Saito, T.

K. Watanabe and T. Saito, “Compact fan-out for 19-core multicore fiber, with high manufacturability and good optical properties,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2015.

Sakaguchi, J.

Saleh, A. A. M.

Sano, T.

O. Shimakawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Pluggable fan-out realizing physical-contact and low coupling loss for multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OM3I.2.

Saridis, G. M.

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Sato, K.

Scott, R. P.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Sekiya, M.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Seno, K.

Shimakawa, O.

O. Shimakawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Pluggable fan-out realizing physical-contact and low coupling loss for multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OM3I.2.

Shimizu, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, and T. Kudou, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 2, pp. 356–358.

Shiozaki, M.

O. Shimakawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Pluggable fan-out realizing physical-contact and low coupling loss for multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OM3I.2.

Simeonidou, D.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Simmons, J. M.

Siracusa, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

Su, T.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

R. Hashimoto, S. Yamaoka, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, K. Yamaguchi, K. Seno, and K. Suzuki, “First demonstration of subsystem-modular optical cross-connect using single-module 6 × 6 wavelength-selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  36, no. 7, pp. 1435–1442, 2018.
[Crossref]

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Takahashi, H.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Takahashi, T.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

Taunay, T. F.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Thouénon, G.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Wang, L.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe and T. Saito, “Compact fan-out for 19-core multicore fiber, with high manufacturability and good optical properties,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2015.

Watanabe, T.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: a decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  35, no. 5, pp. 1099–1115, 2017.
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, “Scaling optical fiber networks: challenges and solutions,” Opt. Photon. News, vol.  26, no. 3, pp. 28–35, Mar.2015.
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, K.

Yamaoka, S.

Yamashita, K.

Y. Mori, K. Yamashita, and M. Jinno, “Feasibility demonstration of integrated fractional joint switching WSS applicable for few-mode multicore fiber,” in Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC), 2018, paper Fr3C.3.

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

Zervas, G.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 7 pp. 8865–8872, 2013.
[Crossref]

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

Zhou, H.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

Zhou, X.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

Zhu, B.

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
[Crossref]

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper PD2.6.

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D. M. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM- SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 60–68, 2015.
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D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouénon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 69–78, 2015.
[Crossref]

R. Proietti, L. Liu, R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, T. Su, F. Giannone, and S. J. B. Yoo, “3D elastic optical networking in the temporal, spectral, and spatial domains,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  53, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2015.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[Crossref]

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M. Jinno, “Elastic optical networking: roles and benefits in beyond 100-Gb/s era,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  35, no. 5, pp. 1116–1124, 2017.
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R. Hashimoto, S. Yamaoka, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, K. Yamaguchi, K. Seno, and K. Suzuki, “First demonstration of subsystem-modular optical cross-connect using single-module 6 × 6 wavelength-selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  36, no. 7, pp. 1435–1442, 2018.
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L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, no. 4, pp. 783–789, 2014.
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P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From scaling disparities to integrated parallelism: a decathlon for a decade,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  35, no. 5, pp. 1099–1115, 2017.
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P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.
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Other (17)

Y. Mori, K. Yamashita, and M. Jinno, “Feasibility demonstration of integrated fractional joint switching WSS applicable for few-mode multicore fiber,” in Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC), 2018, paper Fr3C.3.

N. K. Fontaine, T. Haramaty, R. Ryf, H. Chen, L. Miron, L. Pascar, M. Blau, B. Frenkel, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, R. J. Essiambre, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, J. K. Sahu, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, and D. M. Marom, “Heterogeneous space-division multiplexing and joint wave- length switching demonstration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2015, paper Th5C.5.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM system for space division multiplexing with spatial superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper PDP5B.8.

N. Nemoto, Y. Ikuma, K. Suzuki, O. Moriwaki, T. Watanabe, M. Itoh, and T. Takahashi, “8×8 wavelength cross connect with add/drop ports integrated in spatial and planar optical circuit,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2015, paper Tu.3.5.1.

A. A. M. Saleh, “Transparent optical networking in backbone networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Baltimore, MD, Mar.7, 2000, paper ThD7.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2006, paper OTuF2.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, and T. Kudou, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 2, pp. 356–358.

M. Jinno, J. Kani, and K. Oguchi, “Ultra-wide-band WDM networks and supporting technologies,” in Core Networks and Network Management (NOC ’99), 1999, pp. 90–97.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper 4.2.2.

G. M. Saridis, B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luis, W. Klaus, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, and N. Wada, “Experimental demonstration of a flexible filterless and bidirectional SDM optical metro/inter-DC network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2016, paper M.1.F.3.

M. Jinno, “Spatial channel network (SCN) architecture employing growable and reliable spatial channel cross-connects toward massive SDM era,” in Photonics in Switching and Computing (PSC), 2018, paper Fr3C.5.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, paper PD2.6.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, and A. Carena, “The LOGON strategy for low-complexity control plane implementation in new-generation flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OW1H.3.

M. Jinno, “Added value of introducing spatial bypass into WDM/SDM networks: Gaussian-noise model analysis for spatially-bypassed and spectrally-groomed optical channels,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2018, paper We3D.6.

O. Shimakawa, M. Shiozaki, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Pluggable fan-out realizing physical-contact and low coupling loss for multi-core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2013, paper OM3I.2.

K. Watanabe and T. Saito, “Compact fan-out for 19-core multicore fiber, with high manufacturability and good optical properties,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2015.

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, 2nd ed. Springer, 2013.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Multiplexing technology and optical network evolution: past, current, and foreseeable future. (a) TDM and SDH-XC, (b) WDM and ODU-XC/IP-router, (c) optical bypass using fixed-grid ROADM, (d) optical grooming using BV-ROADM, (e) SDM and large size BV-ROADM, (f) spatial bypass using SXC.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Accommodatable number of spectral superchannels in the C-band.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Spatial channel network (SCN) model.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spectral-superchannel, spatial-superchannel, and spatial channel examples. Each OCh in an SCh is labeled with names of the source/destination node pairs. (a) Spectral and spatial superchannels and (b) spatial channels (SCh).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Relative optical reach for spatially bypassed and spectrally groomed OChs as functions of SXC insertion loss. (a) SCN and HOXC models and (b) calculation results of relative optical reach.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Baseline stacked WXC architecture.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. HOXC architecture employing full-size MS-based SXC and SCN models. (a) HOXC architecture and (b) SCN model.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. HOXC architecture employing sub-MS based SXC. (a) HOXC architecture and (b) SCN model.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. HOXC architecture employing CSS based SXC. (a) HOXC architecture and (b) SCN model.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Total node costs normalized by the cost of a conventional WSS as a function of the number of spatial lanes per link, S .

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OSNR ASE , NLI = P ch P ASE + P NLI = G WDM a + b G WDM 3 ,
a p = B ref N f h ν F R ( 1 α 1 ) ,
a b = B ref N f h ν F R { ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 1 β s 1 ) 1 n } ,
a g = B ref N f h ν F R { ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 2 β s + 1 β w 3 ) 1 n } ,
b = B ref N f R α ρ ,
OSNR ASE , NLI | max = 1 3 ( 4 a 2 b ) 1 3 .
OSNR ASE , NLI bypass | suboptimal = 1 a g + 2 a b ( 4 a g b ) 1 3 .
N f groom | max N f p 2 p | max = [ 1 α 1 ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 2 β s + 1 β w 3 ) 1 n ] 2 3 ,
N f bypass | suboptimal N f P 2 P | max = 3 ( 1 α 1 ) 2 3 { ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 2 β s + 1 β w 3 ) 1 n } 1 3 { ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 2 β s + 1 β w 3 ) 1 n } + 2 { ( 1 α 1 ) + ( 1 β s 1 ) 1 n } .
C wss ( S ) = SD · c wss ,
C fms ( S ) = 2 · c ms ( S max D ( 1 + d ) ) + d g S D · c wss ,
C sms ( S ) = S / l · c ms ( l D ( 1 + d ) ) + d g S D · c wss ,
C fcss ( S ) = 2 D · c css ( S max ) + d g S D · c wss ,
C scss ( S ) = S / l · 2 D · c css ( l ) + d g S D · c wss ,