Abstract

With the advances in optical technology, the span of a broadband access network using passive optical network (PON) technology can be increased from today’s standard of 20 km to 100 km or higher and thereby serve many more users. Such an extended-reach PON is known as a SuperPON in the literature, and we call it a long-reach PON (LR-PON). A major challenge in LR-PON is how to utilize the network resources (e.g., wavelengths, lasers, etc.) effectively to meet the increased bandwidth requests from the expanding base of users. We propose a new and efficient protocol to achieve a high utilization of tunable lasers across different user groups in LR-PON. To accommodate downstream bursty traffic and provide quality of service in the user-specified service-level agreements (SLAs), the protocol integrates our proposed SLA-aware bandwidth allocation scheme based on flow scheduling. Illustrative numerical results demonstrate the protocol’s advantage to support incremental upgrade of bandwidth with increasing user bandwidth requests and to provide a user with an SLA that guarantees a number of streaming flows with average bandwidth and maximum delay guarantee (i.e., 5 ms), as well as data flows with average bandwidth specifications .

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Wegleitner, “Maximizing the impact of optical technology,” Keynote Address, presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2007), Anaheim, CA, March 2007.
  2. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.
  3. D. Meyer, “BT Openreach unsure of fibre demand,” ZDNet, Sept. 2007, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/0,1000000085,39289708,00.htm.
  4. D. Payne, R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.
  5. D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. G. Mestdagh, C. M. Martin, “The Super-PON concept and its technical challenges,” in Proc. of the Int. IFIP-IEEE Conf. on Broadband Communications, pp. 333–345, April 1996.
  8. C. Martin, “Realization of a SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. NOC, pp. 118–93, 1997.
  9. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2005.
  10. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.
  13. W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.

2005 (1)

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

2003 (1)

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C. M.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Chen, B.

B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.

Chen, J.

B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.

Clarke, F.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Davey, R.

D. Payne, R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.

Dixit, S.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

He, S.

B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.

Kim, K.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Kramer, G.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Leland, W. E.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, “Realization of a SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. NOC, pp. 118–93, 1997.

Martin, C. M.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

D. J. G. Mestdagh, C. M. Martin, “The Super-PON concept and its technical challenges,” in Proc. of the Int. IFIP-IEEE Conf. on Broadband Communications, pp. 333–345, April 1996.

Mestdagh, D. J. G.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, C. M. Martin, “The Super-PON concept and its technical challenges,” in Proc. of the Int. IFIP-IEEE Conf. on Broadband Communications, pp. 333–345, April 1996.

Meyer, D.

D. Meyer, “BT Openreach unsure of fibre demand,” ZDNet, Sept. 2007, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/0,1000000085,39289708,00.htm.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Payne, D.

D. Payne, R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X. Z.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Taqqu, M. S.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Van de Voorde, I.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Wegleitner, M.

M. Wegleitner, “Maximizing the impact of optical technology,” Keynote Address, presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2007), Anaheim, CA, March 2007.

Willinger, W.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. V.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

Ye, Y.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chem. Geol. (1)

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” Chem. Geol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Chen, S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 653–660, July–Aug. 2006.

IEEE Network (1)

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Wegleitner, “Maximizing the impact of optical technology,” Keynote Address, presented at the IEEE/OSA Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2007), Anaheim, CA, March 2007.

D. Meyer, “BT Openreach unsure of fibre demand,” ZDNet, Sept. 2007, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/communications/0,1000000085,39289708,00.htm.

D. Payne, R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, C. M. Martin, “The Super-PON concept and its technical challenges,” in Proc. of the Int. IFIP-IEEE Conf. on Broadband Communications, pp. 333–345, April 1996.

C. Martin, “Realization of a SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. NOC, pp. 118–93, 1997.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LR-PON potentially deployed in the Greater Sacramento Region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic wavelength allocation flow chart.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three parts of user-SLA-aware bandwidth allocation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

“Legal” judgment of a new flow.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Admission control.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of up threshold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average packet delay for different wavelengths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelengths required for network upgrade.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Instantaneous delay.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Flow instantaneous delay of a user.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Flow instantaneous bandwidth of a user and background traffic.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Symbols for the Scheduling Algorithm

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( j , k f i j k Max R curr _ i C ) × T cycle + U Th D Max × C × ( R curr _ i + 1 ) ,
L Th = α × U Th .