Abstract

Signal modulation has an important impact on the system performance in optical communication. Two attractive modulation schemes are pulse position modulation (PPM) and multipulse PPM (MPPM), which have the advantage of average energy efficiency and bandwidth efficiency, respectively. An important practical issue is to employ an efficient channel coding of reasonable (decoding) complexity adapted to these modulations. In this view, we consider the use of a classic binary convolutional code together with iterative soft demodulation and channel decoding at the receiver. In particular, we discuss the impact of bit-symbol mapping on the iterative receiver performance and provide design rules for optimal mapping in the case of MPPM.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, “Iterative coded modulation with code rate flexibility for optical space communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Efficient channel coding for pulse position modulation in terrestrial FSO systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7464, paper 74640M, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 872–887, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

V. W. S. Chan, “Free-space optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4750–4762, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1229–1233, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Khalighi, J. J. Boutros, “Semi-blind channel estimation using EM algorithm in iterative MIMO APP detectors,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3165–3173, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. S. Muhammad, J. Speidel, “Joint optimization of signal constellation bit labeling for bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 775–777, Sept. 2005.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Selection of modulation and codes for deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5338, pp. 123–130, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2–7, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. K. Simon, V. A. Vilnrotter, “Performance analysis and tradeoffs for dual-pulse PPM on optical communication channels with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1969–1979, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Tuchler, R. Koetter, A. C. Singer, “Turbo equalization: principles and new results,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 754–767, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. ten Brink, “Convergence behavior of iteratively decoded parallel concatenated codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1727–1737, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. ten Brink, “Designing iterative decoding schemes with the extrinsic information transfer charts,” AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 389–398, Nov. 2000.

1996 (1)

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1261–1271, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. E. Atkin, K.-S. L. Fung, “Coded multipulse modulation in optical communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, nos. 2, 3, 4, pp. 574–582, Feb.–April 1994.
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

G. E. Atkin, H. P. Corrales, “Orthogonal convolutional coding for the PPM optical channel,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 731–734, April 1989.
[CrossRef]

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay, G. Prati, “Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection optical PPM channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1303–1317, Dec. 1989.
[CrossRef]

H. Sugiyama, K. Nosu, “MPPM: a method for improving the band-utilization efficency in optical PPM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 465–471, March 1989.
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. D. Wyner, “Capacity and error exponent for the direct detection photon channel—Part II,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1462–1471, Nov. 1988.
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Divsalar, R. M. Gagliardi, J. H. Yuen, “PPM performance for Reed–Solomon decoding over an optical-RF relay link,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 32, pp. 302–305, March 1984.
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. L. Massey, “Capacity, cutoff rate, and coding for a direct-detection optical channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-29, pp. 1651–1621, Nov. 1981.

Ai, Y.

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, “Iterative coded modulation with code rate flexibility for optical space communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Aitamer, N.

M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009: The 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 59–66.

Andrews, L. C.

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2–7, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Atkin, G. E.

G. E. Atkin, K.-S. L. Fung, “Coded multipulse modulation in optical communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, nos. 2, 3, 4, pp. 574–582, Feb.–April 1994.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Atkin, H. P. Corrales, “Orthogonal convolutional coding for the PPM optical channel,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 731–734, April 1989.
[CrossRef]

Awater, G. A.

A. van Zelst, R. van Nee, G. A. Awater, “Turbo-BLAST and its performance,” IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conf., 2001. VTC 2001 Spring, Rhodes, Greece, May 6–9 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1282–1286.

Baedke, M.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Barsoum, M. F.

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

Berrou, C.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1261–1271, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Bloom, S.

Bourennane, S.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 872–887, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Efficient channel coding for pulse position modulation in terrestrial FSO systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7464, paper 74640M, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Pulse position modulation for FSO systems: capacity and channel coding,” in ConTEL 2009—10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 31–38.

M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009: The 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 59–66.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Performance of coded time-diversity free-space optical links,” in 2008 24th Biennial Symp. on Communications, Kingston, Canada, June 24–26, 2008, pp. 146–149.

Boutros, J. J.

M. A. Khalighi, J. J. Boutros, “Semi-blind channel estimation using EM algorithm in iterative MIMO APP detectors,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3165–3173, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Brandt-Pearce, M.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q. L.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Caussé, P.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 872–887, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Performance of coded time-diversity free-space optical links,” in 2008 24th Biennial Symp. on Communications, Kingston, Canada, June 24–26, 2008, pp. 146–149.

Chan, V. W. S.

Cheng, M.

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Corrales, H. P.

G. E. Atkin, H. P. Corrales, “Orthogonal convolutional coding for the PPM optical channel,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 731–734, April 1989.
[CrossRef]

Didier, P.

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Divsalar, D.

D. Divsalar, R. M. Gagliardi, J. H. Yuen, “PPM performance for Reed–Solomon decoding over an optical-RF relay link,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 32, pp. 302–305, March 1984.
[CrossRef]

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

Douillard, C.

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Fei, Y.-J.

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Fitz, M.

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

Forestieri, E.

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay, G. Prati, “Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection optical PPM channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1303–1317, Dec. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Fung, K.-S. L.

G. E. Atkin, K.-S. L. Fung, “Coded multipulse modulation in optical communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, nos. 2, 3, 4, pp. 574–582, Feb.–April 1994.
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

D. Divsalar, R. M. Gagliardi, J. H. Yuen, “PPM performance for Reed–Solomon decoding over an optical-RF relay link,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 32, pp. 302–305, March 1984.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd. ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1995.

Gangopadhyay, R.

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay, G. Prati, “Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection optical PPM channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1303–1317, Dec. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

Glavieux, A.

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1261–1271, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.-Z

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, “Iterative coded modulation with code rate flexibility for optical space communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hamkins, J.

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Selection of modulation and codes for deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5338, pp. 123–130, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–25, May 2005.

J. Hamkins, “Performance of binary turbo-coded 256-ary pulse-position modulation,” Telecommun. Mission Oper. Prog. Rep., no. 42–138, pp. 1–15, April–June 1999.

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Multipulse pulse-position modulation on discrete memoryless channels,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–13, May 2005.

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

Hemmati, H.

H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications. New York, NY: Wiley, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hranilovic, S.

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2005.

Javornik, T.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

Jelovcan, I.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

Jézéquel, M.

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Jing, L.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1229–1233, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd. ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1995.

Kedar, D.

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2–7, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

Khalighi, M. A.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 872–887, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Efficient channel coding for pulse position modulation in terrestrial FSO systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7464, paper 74640M, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Khalighi, J. J. Boutros, “Semi-blind channel estimation using EM algorithm in iterative MIMO APP detectors,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3165–3173, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Pulse position modulation for FSO systems: capacity and channel coding,” in ConTEL 2009—10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 31–38.

M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009: The 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 59–66.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Performance of coded time-diversity free-space optical links,” in 2008 24th Biennial Symp. on Communications, Kingston, Canada, June 24–26, 2008, pp. 146–149.

Koetter, R.

M. Tuchler, R. Koetter, A. C. Singer, “Turbo equalization: principles and new results,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 754–767, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Leitgeb, E.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

Leveque, J. H.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Massey, J. L.

J. L. Massey, “Capacity, cutoff rate, and coding for a direct-detection optical channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-29, pp. 1651–1621, Nov. 1981.

Meng, Y.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1229–1233, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

Moision, B.

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Selection of modulation and codes for deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5338, pp. 123–130, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Multipulse pulse-position modulation on discrete memoryless channels,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–13, May 2005.

B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–25, May 2005.

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

Muhammad, N. S.

N. S. Muhammad, J. Speidel, “Joint optimization of signal constellation bit labeling for bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 775–777, Sept. 2005.

Muhammad, S. S.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

Nakashima, M.

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Nosu, K.

H. Sugiyama, K. Nosu, “MPPM: a method for improving the band-utilization efficency in optical PPM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 465–471, March 1989.
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Picart, A.

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Prati, G.

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay, G. Prati, “Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection optical PPM channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1303–1317, Dec. 1989.
[CrossRef]

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2008.

Recolons, J.

Salehi, M.

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2008.

Schuster, J.

Schwartz, N.

M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009: The 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 59–66.

Simon, M. K.

M. K. Simon, V. A. Vilnrotter, “Performance analysis and tradeoffs for dual-pulse PPM on optical communication channels with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1969–1979, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Singer, A. C.

M. Tuchler, R. Koetter, A. C. Singer, “Turbo equalization: principles and new results,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 754–767, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Speidel, J.

N. S. Muhammad, J. Speidel, “Joint optimization of signal constellation bit labeling for bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 775–777, Sept. 2005.

S. ten Brink, J. Speidel, R.-H. Yan, “Iterative demapping and decoding for multilevel modulation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 1998. GLOBECOM 98. The Bridge to Global Integration, vol. 1, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 8–12, 1998, pp. 579–584.

Sugiyama, H.

H. Sugiyama, K. Nosu, “MPPM: a method for improving the band-utilization efficency in optical PPM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 465–471, March 1989.
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, “Iterative coded modulation with code rate flexibility for optical space communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

ten Brink, S.

S. ten Brink, “Convergence behavior of iteratively decoded parallel concatenated codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1727–1737, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. ten Brink, “Designing iterative decoding schemes with the extrinsic information transfer charts,” AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 389–398, Nov. 2000.

S. ten Brink, J. Speidel, R.-H. Yan, “Iterative demapping and decoding for multilevel modulation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 1998. GLOBECOM 98. The Bridge to Global Integration, vol. 1, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 8–12, 1998, pp. 579–584.

Tuchler, M.

M. Tuchler, R. Koetter, A. C. Singer, “Turbo equalization: principles and new results,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 754–767, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Uysal, M.

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1229–1233, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

van Nee, R.

A. van Zelst, R. van Nee, G. A. Awater, “Turbo-BLAST and its performance,” IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conf., 2001. VTC 2001 Spring, Rhodes, Greece, May 6–9 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1282–1286.

van Zelst, A.

A. van Zelst, R. van Nee, G. A. Awater, “Turbo-BLAST and its performance,” IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conf., 2001. VTC 2001 Spring, Rhodes, Greece, May 6–9 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1282–1286.

Vetelino, F. S.

Vilnrotter, V. A.

M. K. Simon, V. A. Vilnrotter, “Performance analysis and tradeoffs for dual-pulse PPM on optical communication channels with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1969–1979, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Willebrand, H.

Wilson, S. G.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Wyner, A. D.

A. D. Wyner, “Capacity and error exponent for the direct detection photon channel—Part II,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1462–1471, Nov. 1988.
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 872–887, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Efficient channel coding for pulse position modulation in terrestrial FSO systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7464, paper 74640M, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Pulse position modulation for FSO systems: capacity and channel coding,” in ConTEL 2009—10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 31–38.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Performance of coded time-diversity free-space optical links,” in 2008 24th Biennial Symp. on Communications, Kingston, Canada, June 24–26, 2008, pp. 146–149.

Yan, R.-H.

S. ten Brink, J. Speidel, R.-H. Yan, “Iterative demapping and decoding for multilevel modulation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 1998. GLOBECOM 98. The Bridge to Global Integration, vol. 1, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 8–12, 1998, pp. 579–584.

Young, C.

Yuen, J. H.

D. Divsalar, R. M. Gagliardi, J. H. Yuen, “PPM performance for Reed–Solomon decoding over an optical-RF relay link,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 32, pp. 302–305, March 1984.
[CrossRef]

AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. (1)

S. ten Brink, “Designing iterative decoding schemes with the extrinsic information transfer charts,” AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 389–398, Nov. 2000.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (1)

C. Douillard, M. Jézéquel, C. Berrou, A. Picart, P. Didier, A. Glavieux, “Iterative correction of intersymbol interference: turbo-equalization,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507–511, Sept.–Oct. 1995.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

N. S. Muhammad, J. Speidel, “Joint optimization of signal constellation bit labeling for bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 775–777, Sept. 2005.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, “Urban optical wireless communication networks: the main challenges and possible solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 2–7, May 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. L. Cao, M. Baedke, “Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1901–1910, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, W. Liu, Y.-J. Fei, “A coded modulation scheme for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 372–374, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, J.-Z Guo, Y. Ai, “Iterative coded modulation with code rate flexibility for optical space communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I (1)

M. Cheng, M. Nakashima, B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Optimizations of a hardware decoder for deep-space optical communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 644–658, March 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (9)

C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, “Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1261–1271, Oct. 1996.
[CrossRef]

S. ten Brink, “Convergence behavior of iteratively decoded parallel concatenated codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1727–1737, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. Tuchler, R. Koetter, A. C. Singer, “Turbo equalization: principles and new results,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 754–767, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. Divsalar, R. M. Gagliardi, J. H. Yuen, “PPM performance for Reed–Solomon decoding over an optical-RF relay link,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 32, pp. 302–305, March 1984.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Atkin, K.-S. L. Fung, “Coded multipulse modulation in optical communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, nos. 2, 3, 4, pp. 574–582, Feb.–April 1994.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, “Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1402–1412, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. K. Simon, V. A. Vilnrotter, “Performance analysis and tradeoffs for dual-pulse PPM on optical communication channels with direct detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1969–1979, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Massey, “Capacity, cutoff rate, and coding for a direct-detection optical channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-29, pp. 1651–1621, Nov. 1981.

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay, G. Prati, “Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection optical PPM channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1303–1317, Dec. 1989.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. D. Wyner, “Capacity and error exponent for the direct detection photon channel—Part II,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1462–1471, Nov. 1988.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (2)

M. A. Khalighi, J. J. Boutros, “Semi-blind channel estimation using EM algorithm in iterative MIMO APP detectors,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3165–3173, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, “Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1229–1233, June 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

V. W. S. Chan, “Free-space optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4750–4762, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

G. E. Atkin, H. P. Corrales, “Orthogonal convolutional coding for the PPM optical channel,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 731–734, April 1989.
[CrossRef]

H. Sugiyama, K. Nosu, “MPPM: a method for improving the band-utilization efficency in optical PPM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 465–471, March 1989.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Selection of modulation and codes for deep space optical communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5338, pp. 123–130, Jan. 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Efficient channel coding for pulse position modulation in terrestrial FSO systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 7464, paper 74640M, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

M. A. Khalighi, N. Aitamer, N. Schwartz, S. Bourennane, “Turbulence mitigation by aperture averaging in wireless optical systems,” in ConTEL 2009: The 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 59–66.

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2008.

A. van Zelst, R. van Nee, G. A. Awater, “Turbo-BLAST and its performance,” IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conf., 2001. VTC 2001 Spring, Rhodes, Greece, May 6–9 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1282–1286.

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for Digital Terrestrial Television, ETSI EN 300 744 V1.5.1, European Standard (Telecommunications Series), Nov. 2004.

J. Hamkins, B. Moision, “Multipulse pulse-position modulation on discrete memoryless channels,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–13, May 2005.

B. Moision, J. Hamkins, “Coded modulation for the deep-space optical channel: serially concatenated pulse-position modulation,” Interplanetary Netw. Prog. Rep., no. 42–161, pp. 1–25, May 2005.

H. Hemmati, Deep Space Optical Communications. New York, NY: Wiley, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Hranilovic, Wireless Optical Communication Systems. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2005.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press, 2005.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd. ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1995.

J. Hamkins, “Performance of binary turbo-coded 256-ary pulse-position modulation,” Telecommun. Mission Oper. Prog. Rep., no. 42–138, pp. 1–15, April–June 1999.

S. S. Muhammad, T. Javornik, I. Jelovcan, E. Leitgeb, Z. Ghassemlooy, “Comparison of hard-decision and soft-decision channel coded M-ary PPM performance over free space optical links,” Eur. Trans. Telecommun. (to be published: advance publication Nov. 6, 2008).

M. F. Barsoum, B. Moision, M. Fitz, D. Divsalar, J. Hamkins, “Iterative coded pulse-position-modulation for deep-space optical communications,” in IEEE Information Theory Workshop, 2007. ITW '07, pp. 66–71, Lake Tahoe, CA, Sept. 2–6, 2007.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, “Pulse position modulation for FSO systems: capacity and channel coding,” in ConTEL 2009—10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, Zagreb, Croatia, June 8–10, 2009, pp. 31–38.

S. ten Brink, J. Speidel, R.-H. Yan, “Iterative demapping and decoding for multilevel modulation,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 1998. GLOBECOM 98. The Bridge to Global Integration, vol. 1, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 8–12, 1998, pp. 579–584.

F. Xu, M. A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, “Performance of coded time-diversity free-space optical links,” in 2008 24th Biennial Symp. on Communications, Kingston, Canada, June 24–26, 2008, pp. 146–149.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of PPM and MPPM symbols. I 0 , transmitted light intensity in an ON slot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the iterative receiver. LLR DEM ext and LLR DEC ext , extrinsic soft values at the demapper and the channel decoder, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of different coding and modulation schemes, weak turbulence regime with χ 2 = 0.04 . RSC code, ( 1 , 5 7 ) ; RS code, (239,255); TC, punctured parallel concatenation of two RSC ( 1 , 5 7 ) codes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of the iterative receiver for the AWGN channel, Q-ary PPM with Q = 4 , 8 , 16 , RSC ( 1 , 5 7 ) code; IT m denotes the m th iteration. Also shown is the error floor for the case of 16PPM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Performance of the iterative receiver for the weak turbulence channel with χ 2 = 0.04 , Q-ary PPM with Q = 4 , 8 , 16 , RSC ( 1 , 5 7 ) code; IT m denotes the m th iteration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EXIT charts of the SOVA decoder [corresponding to the RSC code ( 1 , 5 7 ) ] and the demapper for the three modulations 4PPM, 8PPM, and 16PPM, for E b N 0 = 4 dB and AWGN channel. The trajectory describing the receiver convergence for 16PPM is also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Performance of the iterative receiver for 2-4PPM modulation with B = 2 for different mappings for the AWGN channel and the “Best” mapping for the weak turbulence channel. RSC ( 1 , 5 7 ) code; IT m denotes the m th iteration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

EXIT charts of the SOVA decoder and the demapper for the mappings in Tables 1, 2 for 2-4PPM and 2-8PPM modulations. E b N 0 = 8 dB , AWGN channel.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Performance of the iterative receiver for 2-8PPM modulation, B = 3 for different mappings for the AWGN channel and “Best” mapping for the weak turbulence channel, as well as 2-8PPM with B = 4 for AWGN channel. RSC ( 1 , 5 7 ) code; IT m denotes the m th iteration.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Possible Bit-Symbol Mappings and Examples for 2-4PPM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mapping Examples for 2-8PPM

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r = η h I 0 + n ,
r i = x i I + n i , i = 1 , , Q .
LR ( b 1 ) = P ( r | b 1 = 1 ) P ( r | b 1 = 1 ) = P ( r | b 1 = 1 , b 2 = 0 ) + P ( r | b 1 = 1 , b 2 = 1 ) P ( r | b 1 = 0 , b 2 = 0 ) + P ( r | b 1 = 0 , b 2 = 1 ) = P ( r | x 2 = 1 , x 1 = x 3 = x 4 = 0 ) + P ( r | x 4 = 1 , x 1 = x 2 = x 3 = 0 ) P ( r | x 1 = 1 , x 2 = x 3 = x 4 = 0 ) + P ( r | x 3 = 1 , x 1 = x 2 = x 4 = 0 ) .
LR apost ( b 1 ) = exp ( r 1 2 2 σ n 2 + ( r 2 I ) 2 2 σ n 2 + r 3 2 2 σ n 2 + r 4 2 2 σ n 2 ) e L 1 + exp ( r 1 2 2 σ n 2 + r 2 2 2 σ n 2 + r 3 2 2 σ n 2 + ( r 4 I ) 2 2 σ n 2 ) e L 1 + L 2 exp ( ( r 1 I ) 2 2 σ n 2 + r 2 2 2 σ n 2 + r 3 2 2 σ n 2 + r 4 2 2 σ n 2 ) + exp ( r 1 2 2 σ n 2 + r 2 2 2 σ n 2 + ( r 3 I ) 2 2 σ n 2 + r 4 2 2 σ n 2 ) e L 2 = exp ( r 2 I σ n 2 ) e L 1 + exp ( r 4 I σ n 2 ) e ( L 1 + L 2 ) exp ( r 1 I σ n 2 ) + exp ( r 3 I σ n 2 ) e L 2 .
LLR apost ( b 1 ) max ( r 2 I σ n 2 + L 1 , r 4 I σ n 2 + L 1 + L 2 ) max ( r 1 I σ n 2 , r 3 I σ n 2 + L 2 ) .
LLR ext ( b 1 ) = LLR apost ( b 1 ) L 1 = max ( r 2 I σ n 2 , r 4 I σ n 2 + L 2 ) max ( r 1 I σ n 2 , r 3 I σ n 2 + L 2 ) .
LLR ext ( b 2 ) = max ( r 3 I σ n 2 , r 4 I σ n 2 + L 1 ) max ( r 1 I σ n 2 , r 2 I σ n 2 + L 1 ) .
C w Q = ( Q w )
I 0 = 2 P av , σ n 2 = N 0 2 R , E b = 2 P av 2 R b .
I 0 = Q P av , σ n 2 = N 0 2 Q log 2 Q R , E b = Q P av 2 R b .
I 0 = Q P av w , σ n 2 = N 0 2 Q B R , E b = Q P av 2 w R b .