Abstract

After discussing point-to-point fiber-to-the-home, WDM passive optical networks (PONs), and multistage WDM PON networks and elaborating on their respective advantages and limitations, I attempt to lift the veil of next-generation WDM PON topologies and optical network unit architectures while paying close attention to their smooth evolutionary migration path from current TDM PONs. I introduce optical coding enhanced WDM PONs that allow for enhanced real-time dynamic bandwidth allocation and outline future research avenues.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  32. K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
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  33. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Network management solution for PS/PON, WDM/PON and hybrid PS/WDM/PON using DS-OCDM,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007. OFC/NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, CA, March 25–29, 2007, pp 1–3.
  34. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
    [Crossref]
  35. J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
    [Crossref]
  36. N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
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2009 (2)

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

“The petabyte age: because more isn't just more—more is different,” Wired Mag., vol. 16, no. 7., p. 106 ff., June 23, 2008.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, 3rd Quarter 2008.
[Crossref]

P. W. Shumate, “Fiber-to-the-home: 1997–2007,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103, May 2008.
[Crossref]

2007 (8)

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
[Crossref]

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept.–Oct. 2007.
[Crossref]

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[Crossref]

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
[Crossref]

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
[Crossref]

J. Segarra, V. Sales, J. Prat, “An all-optical access-metro interface for hybrid WDM/TDM PON based on OBS,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, Apr. 2007.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[Crossref]

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[Crossref]

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–239, Sept. 2006.
[Crossref]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[Crossref]

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2827–2834, July 2006.
[Crossref]

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–934, May 2006.
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[Crossref]

H. Shinohara, “Broadband access in Japan: rapidly growing FTTH market,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 72–78, Sept. 2005.
[Crossref]

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.
[Crossref]

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “Optical burst switching for the next generation internet,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 40–43, Dec. 2004–Jan. 2005.
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “An introduction to optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S10–S15, Aug. 2003.
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. S. Wagner, H. L. Lemberg, “Technology and system issues for a WDM-based fiber loop architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1759–1768, Nov. 1989.
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-G.

An, F.-T.

Arellano, C.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[Crossref]

Assi, C.

N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

L. Meng, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Dhaini, “Resource management in STARGATE-based Ethernet passive optical networks (SG-EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009.

Balasubramaniam, K.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Banerjee, A.

Battestilli, T.

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “Optical burst switching for the next generation internet,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 40–43, Dec. 2004–Jan. 2005.
[Crossref]

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “An introduction to optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S10–S15, Aug. 2003.
[Crossref]

Bock, C.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[Crossref]

Bodeep, G. E.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

Carr, N.

N. Carr, The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google. New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2008.

Chanclou, P.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May–June 2004.
[Crossref]

Cheng, N.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Choi, K.-M.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[Crossref]

Cioffi, J. M.

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
[Crossref]

Clarke, F.

Cleary, D.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
[Crossref]

Darcie, T. E.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf, San Diego, CA, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, Feb. 24, 2008, paper OThT3.

Desai, B. N.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

Dhaini, A.

L. Meng, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Dhaini, “Resource management in STARGATE-based Ethernet passive optical networks (SG-EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009.

Downs, M. M.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

Dragone, C.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
[Crossref]

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
[Crossref]

Fathallah, H.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
[Crossref]

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Network management solution for PS/PON, WDM/PON and hybrid PS/WDM/PON using DS-OCDM,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007. OFC/NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, CA, March 25–29, 2007, pp 1–3.

Fouli, K.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[Crossref]

Frigo, N. J.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

Genay, N.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Ghazisaidi, N.

N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks (invited paper),” in ICST Int. Conf. on Access Networks (AccessNets), Las Vegas, NV, October 15–17, 2008.

Ginis, G.

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
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Haran, O.

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Herzog, M.

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
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Hsueh, Y.-L.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Hu, S.-T.

Iannone, P. P.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
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Iwatsuki, K.

Jagannathan, S.

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
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Jeong, K.-T.

Joyner, C. H.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
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W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Kaminow, I. P.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
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Kani, J.

Kazovsky, L. G.

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, S.-T. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS: a next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2557–2569, Nov. 2004.
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W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Khoe, G. D.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf, San Diego, CA, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, Feb. 24, 2008, paper OThT3.

Kim, K.

Kim, K. S.

Koch, T. L.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
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Koonen, A. M. J.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf, San Diego, CA, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, Feb. 24, 2008, paper OThT3.

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T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–934, May 2006.
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Koren, U.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
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Kramer, G.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
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A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 737–758, Nov. 2005.
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G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
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Lee, C.-H.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
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S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2582–2591, Nov. 2004.
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Lemberg, H. L.

S. S. Wagner, H. L. Lemberg, “Technology and system issues for a WDM-based fiber loop architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1759–1768, Nov. 1989.
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Li, R. D.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
[Crossref]

Magill, P. D.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
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Maier, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
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M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, 3rd Quarter 2008.
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K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[Crossref]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
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L. Meng, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Dhaini, “Resource management in STARGATE-based Ethernet passive optical networks (SG-EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009.

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks (invited paper),” in ICST Int. Conf. on Access Networks (AccessNets), Las Vegas, NV, October 15–17, 2008.

Marhic, M. E.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Martin, C. M.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, 3rd Quarter 2008.
[Crossref]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
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Meng, L.

L. Meng, C. Assi, M. Maier, A. Dhaini, “Resource management in STARGATE-based Ethernet passive optical networks (SG-EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb. 2009.
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D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept.–Oct. 2007.
[Crossref]

Mohseni, M.

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
[Crossref]

Moon, J.-H.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

Mun, S.-G.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[Crossref]

Oron, M.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
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Park, H.-J.

Park, S.-J.

Park, Y.

Payoux, F.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Perros, H.

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “Optical burst switching for the next generation internet,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 40–43, Dec. 2004–Jan. 2005.
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T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “An introduction to optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S10–S15, Aug. 2003.
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Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, T.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
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Polo, V.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
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Prat, J.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, J. Prat, “An all-optical access-metro interface for hybrid WDM/TDM PON based on OBS,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, Apr. 2007.
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J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
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Presby, H. M.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
[Crossref]

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 1365–1367, Nov. 1994.
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Qiao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May–June 2004.
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Qiu, X. Z.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–239, Sept. 2006.
[Crossref]

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, 3rd Quarter 2008.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[Crossref]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, N. Ghazisaidi, M. Reisslein, “The audacity of fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks (invited paper),” in ICST Int. Conf. on Access Networks (AccessNets), Las Vegas, NV, October 15–17, 2008.

Rusch, L. A.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
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H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, “Network management solution for PS/PON, WDM/PON and hybrid PS/WDM/PON using DS-OCDM,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007. OFC/NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, CA, March 25–29, 2007, pp 1–3.

Sales, V.

Segarra, J.

Shaw, W.-T.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept.–Oct. 2007.
[Crossref]

Shinohara, H.

H. Shinohara, “Broadband access in Japan: rapidly growing FTTH market,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 72–78, Sept. 2005.
[Crossref]

Shrikhande, K.

Shumate, P. W.

Song, H.

Song, K.-H.

Soret, T.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Stulz, L. W.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

Talli, G.

Townsend, P. D.

Urban, P. J.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf, San Diego, CA, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, Feb. 24, 2008, paper OThT3.

Van de Voorde, I.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

Vandewege, J.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

Wagner, S. S.

S. S. Wagner, H. L. Lemberg, “Technology and system issues for a WDM-based fiber loop architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1759–1768, Nov. 1989.
[Crossref]

Wong, S.-W.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Yam, S.

Yang, S.

Yen, S.-H.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Yu, X.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May–June 2004.
[Crossref]

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, I. P. Kaminow, “LARNet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb. 1995.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (11)

H. Shinohara, “Broadband access in Japan: rapidly growing FTTH market,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 72–78, Sept. 2005.
[Crossref]

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R. D. Li, M. Oron, T. Pfeiffer, “An introduction to PON technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17–S25, March 2007.
[Crossref]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[Crossref]

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, “The SuperPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb. 2000.
[Crossref]

T. Battestilli, H. Perros, “An introduction to optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S10–S15, Aug. 2003.
[Crossref]

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–239, Sept. 2006.
[Crossref]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[Crossref]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[Crossref]

K. Fouli, M. Maier, “OCDMA and optical coding: principles, applications, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 27–34, Aug. 2007.
[Crossref]

J. M. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, “CuPON: the copper alternative to PON 100 Gb∕s DSL networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 132–139, June 2007.
[Crossref]

N. Ghazisaidi, C. Assi, M. Maier, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, 3rd Quarter 2008.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb. 2009.
[Crossref]

IEEE Network (2)

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May–June 2004.
[Crossref]

D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept.–Oct. 2007.
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WDM PON architectures [1]. PS, power splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SUCCESS network architecture: migration scenario from existing TDM PONs to WDM PONs [17].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MARIN gateway architecture [19].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

All-optical interface between OBS-M with multiple attached WDM–TDM PONs and distant metro router [23].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

STARGATE network architecture comprising P = 4 COs and N r = 12 RPR nodes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single feeder-fiber network for smooth migration from legacy TDM ONUs to WDM enhanced ONUs and LR ONUs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Backreflection lights in a single feeder-fiber WDM–TDM PON using RSOA-based ONUs [28].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Avoidance of impact of backreflection on the upstream transmission from ONU to OLT [23].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OC-enabled PON: (a) architecture and (b) signaling.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Impact of the signaling period T s on the delay performance of an OC-enhanced EPON.