Abstract

At present there is a strong worldwide push toward bringing fiber closer to individual homes and businesses. Another evolutionary step is the cost-effective all-optical integration of fiber-based access and metro networks. STARGATE (IEEE Commun. Mag. , vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007 ) is an all-optical access-metro architecture that does not rely on costly active devices, e.g., optical cross connects or fixed wavelength converters, and allows low-cost passive optical network (PON) technologies to follow low-cost Ethernet technologies from Ethernet PON (EPON) access into metro networks, resulting in significantly reduced cost and complexity. It uses an overlay island of transparency with optical bypassing capabilities. We first propose optical network unit architectures and discuss several technical challenges, which allow STARGATE EPONs (SG-EPONs) to evolve in a pay-as-you-grow manner while providing backward compatibility with legacy infrastructure and protecting previous investment. Second, and considering all the hardware constraints, we present the corresponding dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for effective resource management in these networks and investigate their performances (delay, throughput) through simulation experiments.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  25. J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 637–654, Sept. 2006.
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  28. M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

P. W. Shumate, “Fiber-to-the-home: 1997–2007,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (5)

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–934, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of back-reflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 637–654, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (EPON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

An, F.-T.

Anderson, T. B.

Arellano, C.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C. M.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 277–286, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Balasubramaniam, K.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Bock, C.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

R. Sananes, C. Bock, J. Prat, “Techno-economic comparison of optical access networks,” in Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Proc. 2005 7th Int. Conf., Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 201–204.

Brenot, R.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Bums, C. A.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. K.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. K.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Chanclou, P.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Cheng, N.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Choi, K.-M.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Davik, F.

F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112–118, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Dhaini, A. R.

Dixit, S.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Genay, N.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Gjessing, S.

F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112–118, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Green, P. E.

P. E. Green, Fiber to the Home—the New Empowerment,” New York, NY: Wiley, 2006.

Gutierrez, D.

Hazzard, B. K.

Henion, S. R.

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Herzog, M.

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, Y.-L.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Hu, S.-T.

Hung, W.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

Kalogerakis, G.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Kang, S. G.

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kazovsky, L. G.

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, S.-T. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS: a next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2557–2569, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Keha, A.

Kim, H. D.

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–934, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

Korn, J.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (EPON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

Maier, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 277–286, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 637–654, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 637–654, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Modiano, E. H.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Moon, J.-H.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (EPON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Mun, S.-G.

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, “The road towards all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Atlanta, GA, Technical Digest, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 23, 2003, paper FA1.

Parikh, S.

Payoux, F.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Perino, J. S.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (EPON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Prat, J.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, J. Prat, “An all-optical access-metro interface for hybrid WDM/TDM PON based on OBS,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, April 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

R. Sananes, C. Bock, J. Prat, “Techno-economic comparison of optical access networks,” in Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Proc. 2005 7th Int. Conf., Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 201–204.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Rao, H. G.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 637–654, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Romkey, B. R.

Sales, V.

Sananes, R.

R. Sananes, C. Bock, J. Prat, “Techno-economic comparison of optical access networks,” in Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Proc. 2005 7th Int. Conf., Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 201–204.

Segarra, J.

Shami, A.

Shaw, W.-T.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Shrikhande, K.

Shumate, P. W.

Shunk, S. C.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Soret, T.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

Suzuki, H.

Tong, F.

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Uzun, N.

F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112–118, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

Wong, S.-W.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

Yam, S.

Ye, Y.

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Yilmaz, M.

F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112–118, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (6)

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, J. Korn, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. H. Modiano, V. W. S. Chan, “A next-generation optical regional access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 66–72, Jan. 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Maier, M. Herzog, M. Reisslein, “STARGATE: the next evolutionary step toward unleashing the potential of WDM EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 50–56, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

F. Davik, M. Yilmaz, S. Gjessing, N. Uzun, “IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 112–118, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, M. Reisslein, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. S18–S25, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network architectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–60, Q3 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. M. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality-of-service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1467–1477, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

J.-H. Moon, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, “Effects of black-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 2045–2047, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Prat, C. Arellano, V. Polo, C. Bock, “Optical network unit based on a bidirectional reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for fiber-to-the-home networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol 17, no. 1, pp. 250–252, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Bums, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996.
[CrossRef]

W. Hung, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chan, F. Tong, “An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1476–1478, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, “Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 67–74, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Segarra, V. Sales, J. Prat, “An all-optical access-metro interface for hybrid WDM/TDM PON based on OBS,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, April 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, “Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 277–286, Jan. 2007.
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, S.-T. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS: a next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2557–2569, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

P. W. Shumate, “Fiber-to-the-home: 1997–2007,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of back-reflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 740–746, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (EPON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, pp. 307–319, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 911–934, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. Noirie, “The road towards all-optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Atlanta, GA, Technical Digest, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 23, 2003, paper FA1.

P. E. Green, Fiber to the Home—the New Empowerment,” New York, NY: Wiley, 2006.

W.-T. Shaw, G. Kalogerakis, S.-W. Wong, Y.-L. Hsueh, N. Cheng, S.-H. Yen, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, “OPN03-2: MARIN: metro-access ring integrated network,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–5.

S.-W. Wong, W.-T. Shaw, K. Balasubramaniam, N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovsky, “MARIN: demonstration of a flexible and dynamic metro-access integrated architecture,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2007. GLOBECOM '07, Washington, DC, Nov. 26–30, 2007, pp. 2173–2177.

R. Sananes, C. Bock, J. Prat, “Techno-economic comparison of optical access networks,” in Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Proc. 2005 7th Int. Conf., Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 201–204.

F. Payoux, P. Chanclou, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, “Demonstration of a RSOA-based wavelength remodulation scheme in 1.25 Gbit∕s bidirectional hybrid WDM-TDM PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, March 5, 2006, paper OTuC4.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

STARGATE network architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SG-EPON single feeder-fiber network for smooth migration from legacy TDM ONUs to WDM-enhanced ONUs and LR ONUs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backreflection lights in a single feeder-fiber WDM–TDM PON using RSOA-based ONUs [24].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Avoidance of effect of backreflections on the upstream transmission from ONU to OLT [11].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission window scheduling: an illustrative example.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TDM ONU traffic delay ( W = 2 , D = 1 ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TDM ONU traffic delay ( W = 4 , D = 2 ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TDM ONU traffic delay ( W = 4 , bidirectional).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

WDM ONU traffic delay.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

LR ONU AWG traffic delay.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Non-AWG traffic throughput of SG-EPON.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

AWG traffic throughput over STARGATE.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B min t = ( T cycle ( N TDM + N WDM + N LR ) T g ) R N 8 ( N TDM + N WDM + N LR ) ,
B min a = ( T cycle N LR T g ) R N 8 N LR .
B min a = ( T cycle N LR T g ) R N 8 max ( N LR , L + W k ) ,
B min w , up = ( T cycle ( N LR + N WDM ) T g ) R N 8 max ( N LR + N WDM ( W D ) , W k ) .
B min w , ds = ( T cycle ( N LR + N WDM ) T g ) R N 8 ( N LR + N WDM ) .
A t i = min ( B req i , B min t ) .
A w i = { B req i Condition 1 B min w , up Condtions 2, 3 } .
A t i = { 0 Condition 1 B req i B min w , up Condition 2 B min t Condition 3 } .
A a i , λ l = min ( B req i , λ l , B min w , up , B min a ) .
A w , ds i = min ( Q w , ds i , B min w , ds ) ,