Abstract

In our previous work [Chan et al., “Optical flow switching,” in BROADNETS 2006, pp. 1–8; Weichenberg et al., “Cost-efficient optical network architectures,” in ECOC 2006, pp. 1–2; Weichenberg et al., “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” GLOBECOM '06, pp. 1–6], we presented optical flow switching (OFS) as a key enabler of scalable future optical networks. We now address the design and analysis of OFS networks in a more comprehensive fashion. The contributions of this work, in particular, are in providing partial answers to the questions of how OFS networks can be implemented, how well they perform, and how their economics compare with those of other architectures. With respect to implementation, we present a sensible scheduling algorithm for inter-metropolitan-area-network (inter-MAN) OFS communication. Our performance study builds upon our work in IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. , vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007 and Weichenberg et al., “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and includes a comparative capacity analysis for the wide area, as well as an analytical approximation of the throughput-delay trade-off offered by OFS for inter-MAN communication. Last, with regard to the economics of OFS, we extend our previous work from ECOC 2006 and GLOBECOM '06 in carrying out an optimized throughput-cost comparison of OFS with other prominent candidate architectures. Our conclusions indicate that OFS offers a significant advantage over other architectures in economic scalability. In particular, for sufficiently heavy traffic, OFS handles large transactions at far lower cost than other optical network architectures. In light of the increasing importance of large transactions to communication networks, we conclude that OFS may be crucial to the future viability of optical networking.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Crovella, A. Bestavros, “Self-similarity in world wide web traffic: evidence and possible causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Paxson, S. Floyd, “Wide-area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226–244, 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, , and , “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and also in Ref. [7].
  7. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, March 22, 2009, paper OMQ5.
  8. V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, M. Médard, “Optical flow switching,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–8.
  9. N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, H. G. Rao, B. K. Hazzard, S. Parikh, B. R. Romkey, M. Kuznetsov, “The NGI ONRAMP test bed: reconfigurable WDM technology for next generation regional access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1697–1708, 2000.
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  10. B. Ganguly, V. W. S. Chan, “A scheduled approach to optical flow switching in the ONRAMP optical access network testbed,” Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper WG2.
  11. V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2146–2168, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kumar, J. Turner, P. Crowley, “Addressing queuing bottlenecks at high speeds,” in 13th Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Stanford, CA, Aug. 17–19, 2005, pp. 107–113.
  13. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kozlovski, M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, “Service differentiation in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper ThGG114.
  15. B. Ganguly, “Implementation and modeling of a scheduled optical flow switching (OFS) network,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2008.
  16. G. Weichenberg, “Design and analysis of optical flow switched networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2009.
  17. A. J. Hoffman, R. R. Singleton, “On Moore graphs with diameters 2 and 3,” IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 4, pp. 497–504, 1960.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. R. Singleton, “On minimal graphs of maximum even girth,” J. Comb. Theory, vol. 1, pp. 306–322, 1966.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sampels, “Vertex-symmetric generalized Moore graphs,” Discrete Appl. Math., vol. 138, pp. 195–202, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Guan, “Cost-effective optical network architecture—a joint optimization of topology, switching, routing and wavelength assignment,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2007.
  21. J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, D. Lin, D. X. Sun, “The effect of statistical multiplexing on the long-range dependence of Internet packet traffic,” Bell Laboratories Tech. Rep., 2002, http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/doc/multiplex.pdf.
  22. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Cost-efficient optical network architectures,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006. ECOC 2006, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, pp. 1–2.
  23. G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–6.
  24. J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media, 2008.
  25. S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. S. Patel, “Optical networking: historical perspectives and future trends,” MIT Lecture Notes, 6.442 Optical Networks, 2008.
  27. E. A. Swanson, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02173, personal communication, May 2008.
  28. S. T. Chuang, S. Iyer, N. McKeown, “Practical algorithms for performance guarantees in buffered crossbars,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Miami, FL, March 13–17, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 981–991.
  29. A. R. Ganguly, “Optical flow switching architectures for ultra-high performance applications,” M.Eng. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, in preparation.

2007

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Sampels, “Vertex-symmetric generalized Moore graphs,” Discrete Appl. Math., vol. 138, pp. 195–202, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1997

M. E. Crovella, A. Bestavros, “Self-similarity in world wide web traffic: evidence and possible causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1997.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1995

V. Paxson, S. Floyd, “Wide-area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226–244, 1995.
[CrossRef]

1994

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1966

R. R. Singleton, “On minimal graphs of maximum even girth,” J. Comb. Theory, vol. 1, pp. 306–322, 1966.
[CrossRef]

1960

A. J. Hoffman, R. R. Singleton, “On Moore graphs with diameters 2 and 3,” IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 4, pp. 497–504, 1960.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

E. Kozlovski, M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, “Service differentiation in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper ThGG114.

Bestavros, A.

M. E. Crovella, A. Bestavros, “Self-similarity in world wide web traffic: evidence and possible causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, D. Lin, D. X. Sun, “The effect of statistical multiplexing on the long-range dependence of Internet packet traffic,” Bell Laboratories Tech. Rep., 2002, http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/doc/multiplex.pdf.

Chan, V. W. S.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
[CrossRef]

V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2146–2168, 1998.
[CrossRef]

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Cost-efficient optical network architectures,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006. ECOC 2006, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, pp. 1–2.

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, M. Médard, “Optical flow switching,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–8.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, March 22, 2009, paper OMQ5.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, , and , “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and also in Ref. [7].

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–6.

B. Ganguly, V. W. S. Chan, “A scheduled approach to optical flow switching in the ONRAMP optical access network testbed,” Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper WG2.

Chuang, S. T.

S. T. Chuang, S. Iyer, N. McKeown, “Practical algorithms for performance guarantees in buffered crossbars,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Miami, FL, March 13–17, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 981–991.

Cleveland, W. S.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, D. Lin, D. X. Sun, “The effect of statistical multiplexing on the long-range dependence of Internet packet traffic,” Bell Laboratories Tech. Rep., 2002, http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/doc/multiplex.pdf.

Crovella, M. E.

M. E. Crovella, A. Bestavros, “Self-similarity in world wide web traffic: evidence and possible causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Crowley, P.

S. Kumar, J. Turner, P. Crowley, “Addressing queuing bottlenecks at high speeds,” in 13th Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Stanford, CA, Aug. 17–19, 2005, pp. 107–113.

Düser, M.

E. Kozlovski, M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, “Service differentiation in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper ThGG114.

Floyd, S.

V. Paxson, S. Floyd, “Wide-area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226–244, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

Ganguly, A. R.

A. R. Ganguly, “Optical flow switching architectures for ultra-high performance applications,” M.Eng. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, in preparation.

Ganguly, B.

B. Ganguly, “Implementation and modeling of a scheduled optical flow switching (OFS) network,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2008.

B. Ganguly, V. W. S. Chan, “A scheduled approach to optical flow switching in the ONRAMP optical access network testbed,” Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper WG2.

Guan, C.

C. Guan, “Cost-effective optical network architecture—a joint optimization of topology, switching, routing and wavelength assignment,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

Hall, K. L.

Hazzard, B. K.

Henion, S. R.

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, R. R. Singleton, “On Moore graphs with diameters 2 and 3,” IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 4, pp. 497–504, 1960.
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S.

S. T. Chuang, S. Iyer, N. McKeown, “Practical algorithms for performance guarantees in buffered crossbars,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Miami, FL, March 13–17, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 981–991.

Kozlovski, E.

E. Kozlovski, M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, “Service differentiation in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper ThGG114.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, J. Turner, P. Crowley, “Addressing queuing bottlenecks at high speeds,” in 13th Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Stanford, CA, Aug. 17–19, 2005, pp. 107–113.

Kumar, V.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

Leland, W. E.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, D. Lin, D. X. Sun, “The effect of statistical multiplexing on the long-range dependence of Internet packet traffic,” Bell Laboratories Tech. Rep., 2002, http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/doc/multiplex.pdf.

McKeown, N.

S. T. Chuang, S. Iyer, N. McKeown, “Practical algorithms for performance guarantees in buffered crossbars,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Miami, FL, March 13–17, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 981–991.

Médard, M.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, , and , “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and also in Ref. [7].

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–6.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Cost-efficient optical network architectures,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006. ECOC 2006, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, pp. 1–2.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, March 22, 2009, paper OMQ5.

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, M. Médard, “Optical flow switching,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–8.

Modiano, E.

Parikh, S.

Patel, N. S.

N. S. Patel, “Optical networking: historical perspectives and future trends,” MIT Lecture Notes, 6.442 Optical Networks, 2008.

Paxson, V.

V. Paxson, S. Floyd, “Wide-area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226–244, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Rao, H. G.

Rauschenbach, K. A.

Romkey, B. R.

Saha, D.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sampels, M.

M. Sampels, “Vertex-symmetric generalized Moore graphs,” Discrete Appl. Math., vol. 138, pp. 195–202, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, S.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sherman, R.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. M.

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media, 2008.

Singleton, R. R.

R. R. Singleton, “On minimal graphs of maximum even girth,” J. Comb. Theory, vol. 1, pp. 306–322, 1966.
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hoffman, R. R. Singleton, “On Moore graphs with diameters 2 and 3,” IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 4, pp. 497–504, 1960.
[CrossRef]

Sun, D. X.

J. Cao, W. S. Cleveland, D. Lin, D. X. Sun, “The effect of statistical multiplexing on the long-range dependence of Internet packet traffic,” Bell Laboratories Tech. Rep., 2002, http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/doc/multiplex.pdf.

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02173, personal communication, May 2008.

Taqqu, M. S.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

S. Kumar, J. Turner, P. Crowley, “Addressing queuing bottlenecks at high speeds,” in 13th Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Stanford, CA, Aug. 17–19, 2005, pp. 107–113.

Weichenberg, G.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the throughput-cost tradeoff of multi-tiered optical network architectures,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006. GLOBECOM '06, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, 2006, pp. 1–6.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, , and , “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and also in Ref. [7].

G. Weichenberg, “Design and analysis of optical flow switched networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2009.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Cost-efficient optical network architectures,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006. ECOC 2006, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, pp. 1–2.

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, M. Médard, “Optical flow switching,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–8.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, San Diego, CA, March 22, 2009, paper OMQ5.

Willinger, W.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. V.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Zapata, A.

E. Kozlovski, M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, “Service differentiation in wavelength-routed optical burst switched networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., A. Sawchuk, ed., vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper ThGG114.

Comp. Commun. Rev.

M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, R. Sherman, “Proof of a fundamental result in self-similar traffic modeling,” Comp. Commun. Rev., vol. 27, pp. 5–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Discrete Appl. Math.

M. Sampels, “Vertex-symmetric generalized Moore graphs,” Discrete Appl. Math., vol. 138, pp. 195–202, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

A. J. Hoffman, R. R. Singleton, “On Moore graphs with diameters 2 and 3,” IBM J. Res. Dev., vol. 4, pp. 497–504, 1960.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

M. E. Crovella, A. Bestavros, “Self-similarity in world wide web traffic: evidence and possible causes,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 835–846, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, R. Sherman, D. V. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high variability: statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1997.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1994.
[CrossRef]

V. Paxson, S. Floyd, “Wide-area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226–244, 1995.
[CrossRef]

J. Comb. Theory

R. R. Singleton, “On minimal graphs of maximum even girth,” J. Comb. Theory, vol. 1, pp. 306–322, 1966.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, M. Médard, , and , “Performance analysis of optical flow switching,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 14–18, 2009, and also in Ref. [7].

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of an OFS MAN based on a Moore graph (Petersen graph) with Δ = 3 and d = 2 . A MAN node (white box) comprises an OXC with one or more access DNs (gray boxes) connected. Optical amplifiers are not shown. (a) Embedded tree portion of the OFS MAN. (b) Mesh OFS MAN based on the Petersen graph. Note that the tree topology in (a) is embedded with this topology. Fiber links not in the embedded tree are shown as dotted lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Expected queueing delay versus throughput for DN with two fibers and 2 f fibers per DN under three flow length distributions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Expected queueing delay versus throughput for a truncated heavy-tailed flow distribution with different numbers of DNs ( n ̃ a ) per MAN with two fibers per DN and no wavelength conversion. The case of 2 f fibers per DN is also shown as a performance benchmark.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

WAN topology of the U.S. considered throughout this section. Based on [24], Fig. 8.1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample end-to-end WAN connection under EPS, OCS/OBS, and OFS. Electronic networking devices are shown in blue; optical networking devices are shown in black and white.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Generic optimal node degree for generalized Moore graphs: Δ * ( x ) = x W ( x ) 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Minimum-cost architecture as a function of MAN size and average end-user data rate. It is assumed that transactions have a truncated heavy-tailed distribution and that DNs have two fibers and no wavelength conversion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized total network cost (in the units of x used in Table 4) versus average end-user data rate. It is assumed that each MAN has an end-user population of 10 6 , transactions have a truncated heavy-tailed distribution, and DNs have two fibers and no wavelength conversion.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Partitioning of the truncated heavy-tail distribution into architecture service regions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Minimum-cost hybrid architecture as a function of MAN size and average end-user data rate. It is assumed that average end-user data rates are drawn from a truncated heavy-tailed distribution with initial lower limit 10 3 bits / s and width 10 4 bits / s and that DNs have two fibers and no wavelength conversion.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized cost components of the minimum-cost hybrid architecture (in the units of x used in Table 4) versus average end-user data rate. It is assumed that average end-user data rates are drawn from a truncated heavy-tailed distribution with initial lower limit 10 3 bits / s and width 10 4 bits / s , that each MAN has an end-user population of 10 6 , and that DNs have two fibers and no wavelength conversion.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 WAN Parameters and Values for the Numerical Studies a

Tables Icon

Table 2 MAN Parameters and Values for the Numerical Studies (Subsections 4F, 4G)

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Table 3 Access Network Parameter Values for the Numerical Studies (Subsections 4F, 4G)

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Table 4 Relative Costs of Network Elements for Both 10 and 40 Gbit / s Line Rates a

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Table 5 Cost Scaling Parameters and Values for the Numerical Studies (Subsections 4F, 4G)

Equations (13)

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w m f w t n w 1 ,
λ c = λ m w m ,
Q M s M d ( ω 1 ) , Q M s M d ( ω 2 ) , , Q M s M d ( ω w m ) ,
X ¯ = L ¯ + Y ¯ + τ L ¯ + Y ¯ ,
X ¯ L ¯ + f λ c L 2 ¯ 2 ( n ̃ a f λ c L ¯ ) ,
X 2 ¯ n ̃ a L 2 ¯ n ̃ a f λ c L ¯ + ( f λ c L 2 ¯ ) 2 2 ( n ̃ a f λ c L ¯ ) 2 + f λ c L 3 ¯ 3 ( n ̃ a f λ c L ¯ ) .
Y ¯ < Z s ¯ + Z d ¯ ,
X ¯ L ¯ + Z s ¯ + Z d ¯ ,
X 2 ¯ L 2 ¯ + Z s 2 ¯ + Z d 2 ¯ + 2 L ¯ × Z s ¯ + 2 L ¯ × Z d ¯ + 2 Z s ¯ × Z d ¯ .
W [ Y ¯ + λ c X 2 ¯ 2 ( 1 λ c X ¯ ) ] [ W ̂ M , w m ( λ m X ¯ , p X ) W ̂ M , 1 ( λ c X ¯ , p X ) ] .
Δ EPS * k ln n m [ w u n m + 2 w a ] 4 α l m [ W ( k ln n m [ w u n m + 2 w a ] 4 α ) ] 2
Δ OFS * k w u n m ln n m 4 α l m [ W ( k w u n w ln n m 4 α l m ) ] 2
2 { Δ EPS * , Δ OFS * } n m 1 ,