Abstract

Most existing all-optical switching paradigms assume that different wavelengths are switched independently, which limits the scalability of core switches. In the optical cell switching (OCS) paradigm, time is divided into time slots of fixed size by time-division multiplexing, and the wavelengths in a time slot are all bundled. Thus, each OCS core switch (OCX) requires a single switching plane and performs mere time–space switching. In OCS, each OCX requires optical slot synchronizers (OSYNs) at all inputs for the arrival slots to be aligned so that cells can be simultaneously forwarded. We propose a new OCS paradigm—not-aligned OCS—where the alignment process takes place inside the OCXs. In not-aligned OCS, no OSYNs are required, and the alignment resources are shared between all input fibers. Therefore, the proposal fulfills diverse objectives: the total number of fiber delay loops and the hardware cost are reduced, and the number of switching operations is also lower than in aligned OCS. Moreover, cell arrival time at the switch is not critical, and the network becomes simpler and more flexible. We also propose a new scheduling algorithm for not-aligned OCS networks. We provide simulation results that show that the not-aligned OCS schema takes the connection blocking probability to reasonable values.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005

2002

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

P. Bayvel, M. Duser, “Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 574–585, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 98–104, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–124, Jan. 2000.

N. Huang, G. Liaw, C. Wang, “A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1863–1875, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, “All-optical packet routing—architecture and implementation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 1999.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1996

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

Baldine, I.

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ball, P.

Barry, R. A.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Burrows, E. C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Castagnozzi, D. M.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J. C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Chan, V. W. S.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Chao, H. J.

S. Y. Liew, H. J. Chao, G. Hu, “Scheduling algorithms for shared fiber-delay-line optical packet switches. Part I: the single-stage case,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1586–1600, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, “All-optical packet routing—architecture and implementation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 1999.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chao, S. Y. Liew, “A new optical cell switching paradigm,” presented at Int. Workshop Optical Burst Switching, Dallas, TX, Oct. 2003.

Charlet, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Chia, M. C.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Choa, F. S.

F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, “All-optical packet routing—architecture and implementation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 98–104, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Dragone, C.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Duser, M.

Elek, V.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, S. P.

Finn, S. G.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Fumagalli, A.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Gallager, R. G.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Guild, K. M.

Hemenway, B. R.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Higuma, K.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Hu, G.

Huang, N.

N. Huang, G. Liaw, C. Wang, “A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1863–1875, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. K.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–124, Jan. 2000.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Kirby, A. J.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Koch, T.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Liaw, G.

N. Huang, G. Liaw, C. Wang, “A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1863–1875, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Liew, S. Y.

Marquis, D.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–124, Jan. 2000.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M. J.

Ozveren, C. M.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Parikh, S. A.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Perros, H. G.

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 98–104, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Ramamirtham, J.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Time sliced optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, San Franciso, CA, Mar. 30–Apr. 3, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2030–3028.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 362–370.

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Rouskas, G. N.

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Saleh, A. A. M.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Schofield, B.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Sivalingam, K. M.

B. Wen, K. M. Sivalingam, “Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1442–1450.

Somani, A. K.

R. Srinivasan, A. K. Somani, “A generalized framework for analyzing time–space switched optical networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2001, 20th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., Anchorage, AK, Apr. 22–26, 2001, pp. 179–188.

Srinivasan, R.

R. Srinivasan, A. K. Somani, “A generalized framework for analyzing time–space switched optical networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2001, 20th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., Anchorage, AK, Apr. 22–26, 2001, pp. 179–188.

Stevens, M. L.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D.

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Szabo, C.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. E.

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Tran, P.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Turner, J.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 362–370.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Time sliced optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, San Franciso, CA, Mar. 30–Apr. 3, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2030–3028.

Wang, C.

N. Huang, G. Liaw, C. Wang, “A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1863–1875, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Wen, B.

B. Wen, K. M. Sivalingam, “Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1442–1450.

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

Wright, I.

Yao, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M.

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 98–104, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–124, Jan. 2000.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

I. Baldine, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, D. Stevenson, “Jumpstart: a just-in-time signaling architecture for WDM burst-switched networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 82–89, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 98–104, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed EDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

N. Huang, G. Liaw, C. Wang, “A novel all-optical transport network with time-shared wavelength channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1863–1875, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, “WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810–1824, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, C. R. Doerr, C. Dragone, T. Koch, U. Koren, A. A. M. Saleh, A. J. Kirby, C. M. Ozveren, B. Schofield, R. E. Thomas, R. A. Barry, D. M. Castagnozzi, V. W. S. Chan, B. R. Hemenway, D. Marquis, S. A. Parikh, M. L. Stevens, E. A. Swanson, S. G. Finn, R. G. Gallager, “A wideband all-optical WDM network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 780–799, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

I. Chlamtac, V. Elek, A. Fumagalli, C. Szabo, “Scalable WDM access network architecture based on photonic slot routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Networks

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Networks Mag.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–124, Jan. 2000.

Photonic Network Commun.

F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, “All-optical packet routing—architecture and implementation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Other

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb∕sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP19.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 362–370.

B. Wen, K. M. Sivalingam, “Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2002. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., New York, NY, June 23–27, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1442–1450.

R. Srinivasan, A. K. Somani, “A generalized framework for analyzing time–space switched optical networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2001, 20th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies Proc., Anchorage, AK, Apr. 22–26, 2001, pp. 179–188.

J. Ramamirtham, J. Turner, “Time sliced optical burst switching,” in IEEE INFOCOM 2003. 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, San Franciso, CA, Mar. 30–Apr. 3, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2030–3028.

H. J. Chao, S. Y. Liew, “A new optical cell switching paradigm,” presented at Int. Workshop Optical Burst Switching, Dallas, TX, Oct. 2003.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OCS time slot and frame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCS network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ingress OCXs can perform wavelength grooming.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shared-FDL OCX: (a) aligned, (b) not aligned.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ingress CERs synchronization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cell alignment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OCX state table.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCX assignment algorithm: (a) slot transition diagram, (b) algorithm result.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Algorithm pseudocode.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Network topology under simulation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Not-aligned OCS call blocking probability, case without FDLs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Not-aligned OCS call blocking probability for different parameters.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Not-aligned OCS call blocking probability for different resources.