Abstract

The design of fabrics for terabit packet switches and routers needs to consider the limitations imposed by electronic technologies. In particular, attention has to be paid to information density and to power consumption and dissipation, as well as to power supply and footprint requirements. Optical technologies can overcome some of these limitations. We analyze the use of optical fabrics to interconnect line cards in terabit packet switches and routers. For this purpose, single-plane and multiplane optical interconnection architectures are proposed that exploit wavelength agility at line cards to implement the required switching functionality. The physical-layer scalability and feasibility of these architectures are studied by using realistic models, mostly based on the characteristics of commercially available optoelectronic devices. As a result, the considered architectures can be characterized in terms of power budget and signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the computation of the maximum achievable port count and aggregate switching capacity. Our results show that aggregate capacities of the order of a few terabits per second are possible in very simple optical switching fabrics and that the multiplane architectures permit a complexity trade-off between the wavelength and space domains, making the overall design more feasible.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. McKeown, “Optics inside routers,” presented at European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2003, Rimini, Italy, Sep. 2003.
  3. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1988.
  4. A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.
  5. A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.
  6. N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.
  8. N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–201, Apr. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.
  11. A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  12. Alphion, QLight I-Switch Model IS22, Advance Product Information, http://www.alphion.com.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, New York, NY: Wiley, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  15. ACCELINK, 100 GHz DWDM Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.accelink.com.
  16. FUTUREX, Single Mode Standard Star Coupler Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.futurexusa.com.
  17. JDSU, WDM Filter 100 GHz Multi-channel Mux/Demux Module and Tuneable Lasers, Product Datasheet, http://www.jdsu.com.
  18. ANDevicesN×N, AWG Multiplexers and Demultiplexers Router Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.andevices.com.
  19. D. Blumenthal, M. Masanovic, “Lasor (label switched optical router): architecture and underlying integration technologies,” presented at 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 25–29, 2005.
  20. JDSU, WDM Filter 100 GHz Single-channel, Product Datasheet, http://www.jdsu.com.
  21. S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Sackinger, Broadband Circuits for Optical Fiber Communication, New York, NY: Wiley, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008, Vilanova i la Geltru, Spain, March 12–14, 2008, pp. 1–6.

2003 (2)

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–201, Apr. 1999.
[CrossRef]

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on NN optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097–1105, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, New York, NY: Wiley, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ajmone Marsan, M.

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Anantharam, V.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Antonino, A.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

Bernasconi, P.

Bhardwaj, A.

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

Birke, R.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

Blumenthal, D.

D. Blumenthal, M. Masanovic, “Lasor (label switched optical router): architecture and underlying integration technologies,” presented at 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 25–29, 2005.

Carta, E.

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

Cuda, D.

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

De Feo, V.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

Duelk, M.

Finocchietto, J. M.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

Finochietto, J. M.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008, Vilanova i la Geltru, Spain, March 12–14, 2008, pp. 1–6.

Gaudino, R.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008, Vilanova i la Geltru, Spain, March 12–14, 2008, pp. 1–6.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

Gavilanes Castillo, G. A.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008, Vilanova i la Geltru, Spain, March 12–14, 2008, pp. 1–6.

Gripp, J.

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Habbab, I. M. I.

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

La Porta, A.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

Laznicka, O.

Leonardi, E.

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, M.

D. Blumenthal, M. Masanovic, “Lasor (label switched optical router): architecture and underlying integration technologies,” presented at 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 25–29, 2005.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–201, Apr. 1999.
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, “Optics inside routers,” presented at European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2003, Rimini, Italy, Sep. 2003.

Mekkittikul, A.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Milia, L.

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Neri, F.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

J. M. Finochietto, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008, Vilanova i la Geltru, Spain, March 12–14, 2008, pp. 1–6.

Oda, K.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on NN optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097–1105, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Petracca, M.

A. Antonino, R. Birke, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “The WONDER testbed: architecture and experimental demonstration,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2007, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, p. 116.

A. Antonino, V. De Feo, J. M. Finocchietto, R. Gaudino, A. La Porta, F. Neri, M. Petracca, “Toward feasible all-optical packet networks: recent results on the WONDER experimental testbed,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA86.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1988.

Sackinger, E.

E. Sackinger, Broadband Circuits for Optical Fiber Communication, New York, NY: Wiley, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J.

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J. E.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1988.

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on NN optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097–1105, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on NN optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097–1105, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Walrand, J.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Woodward, S. L.

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

Zirngibl, M.

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. Simsarian, M. Zirngibl, “Demonstration of stable wavelength switching on a fast tunable laser transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1014–1016, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, I. M. I. Habbab, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “The side-mode-suppression ratio of a tunable DBR laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 854–856, Dec. 1990.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1260–1267, Aug. 1999.
[CrossRef]

M. Ajmone Marsan, A. Bianco, E. Leonardi, L. Milia, “RPA: a flexible scheduling algorithm for input buffered switches,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1921–1933, Dec. 1999.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–201, Apr. 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on NN optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097–1105, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, New York, NY: Wiley, 2002.
[CrossRef]

ACCELINK, 100 GHz DWDM Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.accelink.com.

FUTUREX, Single Mode Standard Star Coupler Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.futurexusa.com.

JDSU, WDM Filter 100 GHz Multi-channel Mux/Demux Module and Tuneable Lasers, Product Datasheet, http://www.jdsu.com.

ANDevicesN×N, AWG Multiplexers and Demultiplexers Router Module, Product Datasheet, http://www.andevices.com.

D. Blumenthal, M. Masanovic, “Lasor (label switched optical router): architecture and underlying integration technologies,” presented at 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), Sept. 25–29, 2005.

JDSU, WDM Filter 100 GHz Single-channel, Product Datasheet, http://www.jdsu.com.

A. Bianco, E. Carta, D. Cuda, J. M. Finochietto, F. Neri, “A distributed scheduling algorithm for an optical switching fabric,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2008. ICC '08, Beijing, China, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 5427–5431.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single-plane architecture with distributed sequential scheduling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiplane optical fabric architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SBS optical fabric.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SCD optical fabric.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SCAD optical fabric.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SCAS optical fabric.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SWR optical fabric.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Space diversity switch configuration.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

General multiplane configuration.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MCAD architecture.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Power penalties for N : N star coupler devices.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power penalties for 1 : N coupler–splitter devices.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Power penalties for 1 : N WDM demultiplexer devices.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Power penalties for N : N AWG devices.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Total aggregate bandwidth versus line card bit rate for single-plane architectures.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Total aggregate bandwidth versus line card bit rate for multiplane architectures ( S = 2 , OSNR Tx = 40 dB ) .

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Aggregate bandwidth comparison for the MCAD architecture ( OSNR Tx = 40 dB ).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Aggregated bandwidth dependency of all architectures on OSNR Tx at 100 Gbits / s . Aggregated bandwidth is the maximum achieved by the architectures with any line card bit rate (and S values for multiplane architectures).

Equations (20)

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L SBS | ( N ) | dB = L star | ( N ) | dB + | L filter | dB ,
L SCD | ( N ) | dB = L split | ( N ) | dB + L mux | ( N ) | dB ,
L SCAD a | ( N ) | dB = L mux | ( N ) | dB ,
L SCAD b | ( N ) | dB = L split | ( N ) | dB .
L SCAS a | ( N ) | dB = L split | ( N ) | dB + | L filter | dB ,
L SCAS b | ( N ) | dB = L split | ( N ) | dB .
L SWR | ( N ) | dB = L AWG | ( N ) | dB ,
X ( N ) = 2 X A + ( N 3 ) X N .
OX | ( N ) | dB = 10 log 10 ( 1 + X ( N ) ) .
IX | ( N ) | dB = 10 log 10 ( 1 X ( N ) Q 2 ) ,
IX | ( S ) | dB = 10 log 10 ( 1 ( S 1 ) ER Q 2 ) .
P S | ( R b ) | dBm = 26 dBm + 13.5 log ( R b 10 Gbits / s ) .
| P Tx | dBm | L | dB μ | P S | dBm .
| P EDFA , out | dBm = | P EDFA | dBm 10 log | ( N ) | dB .
P N = G N R b .
G N , out ( f ) = G N , in ( f ) G Amp + h f ( G Amp 1 ) F Amp ,
G N , in ( f ) = G N , Tx L b ( N ) N .
G N , in ( f ) = G N , in , SOA G SOA + h f ( G SOA 1 ) F SOA L b ( N , S ) N S .
| P EDFA , out | dBm | L a | dB μ | P S | dBm ,
| P EDFA , out | dBm | P N , EDFA , out | dBm μ | T OSNR | dB ,