Abstract

Power consumption and the footprint of future network elements are expected to become the main limiting factors for scaling the current architectures and approaches to capacities of hundreds of terabits or even petabits per second. Since the underlying demand for network capacity can be satisfied only by contemporaneously increasing transmission bit rate, processing speed, and switching capacity, it unavoidably will lead to increased power consumption of network nodes. On the one hand, using optical switching fabrics could relax the limitations to some extent, but large optical buffers occupy larger areas and dissipate more power than electronic ones. On the other hand, electronic technology has made fast progress during the past decade regarding reduced feature size and decreased power consumption. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future. This paper addresses power consumption issues in future high-capacity switching and routing elements and examines different architectures based on both pure packet-switched and pure circuit-switched designs by assuming either all-electronic or all-optical implementation, which can be seen as upper and lower bounds regarding power consumption. The total power consumption of a realistic and appropriate technology for future high-performance core network nodes would probably lie somewhere between those two extreme cases. Our results show that implementation in optics is generally more power efficient; especially circuit-switched architectures have a low power consumption. When taking into account possible future developments of Si CMOS technology, even very large electronic packet routers having capacities of more than hundreds of terabits per second seem to be feasible. Because circuit switching is more power efficient and easier to implement in optics than pure packet switching, the scalability limitation due to increased power consumption could be considerably relaxed when a kind of dynamic optical circuit switching is used within the core network together with an efficient flow aggregation at edge nodes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb∕s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, A. Salis, A. Dupas, D. Chiaroni, “All-optical packet synchronizer for slotted core/metropolitan networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 88–93, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wang, “All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 91, nos. 3–4, pp. 421–424, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Chang, J.-S. Shen, T.-F. Chen, “Tailoring circuit-switched network-on-chip to application-specific system-on-chip by two optimization schemes,” in ACM Trans. Design Autom. Electron. Syst., vol. 13, no. 1, article 12, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. W. M. Wong, M. Zukerman, “Analysis of an optical hybrid switch,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 108–110, 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gauger, P. J. Kuhn, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 4655–4673, 2006.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, “107-Gb∕s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 3107–3113, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, pp. 383–394, 2005.
[CrossRef]

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. J. Chao, K.-L. Deng, Z. Jing, “Petastar: a petabit photonic packet switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1096–1112, 2003.
[CrossRef]

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Molinero-Fernández, N. McKeown, “TCP switching: exposing circuits to IP,” IEEE MICRO, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 82–89, Jan.–Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.

2000 (2)

C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, S. Schelhase, M. Möhrle, S. Bauer, “Self-pulsating DFB laser for all-optical clock recovery at 40 Gbit∕s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 327–328, 2000.
[CrossRef]

D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

1999 (1)

N. Yamanaka, K. Shiomoto, “DTM: dynamic transfer mode based on dynamically assigned short-hold time-slot relay,” IEICE Trans. Commun., E-82b, pp. 439–446, 1999.

1992 (1)

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 1071–1082, 1989.
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 32, pp. 406–424, 1953.
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Aidam, R.

R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

Al-Mumin, M.

W. Mao, X. Wang, M. Al-Mumin, G. Li, “40 Gb∕s all-optical clock recovery using three section self-pulsation DFB lasers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, March 7, 2000, OSA Technical Digest Series, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2000, paper ThF2, pp. 79–80.

Aoyagi, T.

T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Awduche, D.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

Baert, J.

J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

Balmefrezol, B.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.

Basch, B.

Bauer, S.

C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, S. Schelhase, M. Möhrle, S. Bauer, “Self-pulsating DFB laser for all-optical clock recovery at 40 Gbit∕s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 327–328, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Berger, L.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

Bernstein, G.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0—controlling optical networks,” White paper, Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001.

Bjørnstad, S.

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C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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C. M. Gauger, P. J. Kuhn, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, Aug. 2006.
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O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
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P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb∕s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
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P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, “2000-km WDM transmission of 10×107-Gb∕s RZ-DQPSK,” presented at European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, paper Th 4.1.3.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, “Hybrid 107-Gb∕s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7 DQPSK transmission at 1.4- bits∕s∕Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs,” presented at 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, paper PD 1.92.

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S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, “Hybrid 107-Gb∕s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7 DQPSK transmission at 1.4- bits∕s∕Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs,” presented at 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, paper PD 1.92.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb∕s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
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S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, “Hybrid 107-Gb∕s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7 DQPSK transmission at 1.4- bits∕s∕Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs,” presented at 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, Sept. 16–20, 2007, paper PD 1.92.

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Chuang, S.-T.

I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

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Dagens, B.

D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

De Leenheer, M.

J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

de Man, E.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

De Turck, F.

J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

de Waardt, H.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Demeester, P.

C. M. Gauger, P. J. Kuhn, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, Aug. 2006.
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J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

Deng, K.-L.

H. J. Chao, K.-L. Deng, Z. Jing, “Petastar: a petabit photonic packet switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1096–1112, 2003.
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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

Dhoedt, B.

J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

Diot, C.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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Dorgueille, F.

N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

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Drake, J.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

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R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

Duelk, M.

Dupas, A.

A. Stavdas, A. Salis, A. Dupas, D. Chiaroni, “All-optical packet synchronizer for slotted core/metropolitan networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, pp. 88–93, 2008.
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N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

Duthel, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Ekawa, M.

S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Yamazaki, S. Tomabechi, A. Uetake, M. Ekawa, K. Morito, “Polarization-insensitive monolithically-integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large gain and high extinction ratio,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OWE2.

Ellinger, F.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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G. Epps, D. Tsiang, T. Boures, “System power challenges,” presented at Cisco Routing Research Seminar, Aug. 29–30, 2006.

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S. Bjørnstad, L. E. Eriksen, D. R. Hjelme, “The OpMiGua multiservice optical hybrid packet/circuit switched network supporting TV-broadcasting QoS requirements,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Nottingham, UK, June 18–22, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 219–224.

Erni, D.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

Fishman, D. A.

Fjelde, T.

D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Fraleigh, C.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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Fukuyama, H.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

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H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Gauger, C. M.

C. M. Gauger, P. J. Kuhn, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, Aug. 2006.
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Goodman, J. W.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 1992.
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H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Hamilton, S. A.

J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Higuma, K.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb∕s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, “2000-km WDM transmission of 10×107-Gb∕s RZ-DQPSK,” presented at European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, paper Th 4.1.3.

Hirayama, M.

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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S. Bjørnstad, L. E. Eriksen, D. R. Hjelme, “The OpMiGua multiservice optical hybrid packet/circuit switched network supporting TV-broadcasting QoS requirements,” in 2006 Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Nottingham, UK, June 18–22, 2006, vol. 3, pp. 219–224.

Horowitz, M.

I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wang, “All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 91, nos. 3–4, pp. 421–424, June 2008.
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J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Izutsu, M.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, “2000-km WDM transmission of 10×107-Gb∕s RZ-DQPSK,” presented at European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, paper Th 4.1.3.

Jäckel, H.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Janz, C.

D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

Jeon, M. Y.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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Jeong, S.-H.

S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Yamazaki, S. Tomabechi, A. Uetake, M. Ekawa, K. Morito, “Polarization-insensitive monolithically-integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large gain and high extinction ratio,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OWE2.

Jing, Z.

H. J. Chao, K.-L. Deng, Z. Jing, “Petastar: a petabit photonic packet switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1096–1112, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kalman, R. F.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb∕s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3388–3402, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, “2000-km WDM transmission of 10×107-Gb∕s RZ-DQPSK,” presented at European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, paper Th 4.1.3.

Kazovsky, L. G.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 1992.
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N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

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I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

Khan, M.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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P.-H. Pham, Y. Kumar, C. Kim, “High performance and area-efficient circuit-switched network on chip design,” in The 6th IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Information Technology, 2006. CIT '06, Seoul, South Korea, Sept. 2006, p. 243.

Kim, D. C.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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Ko, H.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

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O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
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O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
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M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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W. Mao, X. Wang, M. Al-Mumin, G. Li, “40 Gb∕s all-optical clock recovery using three section self-pulsation DFB lasers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, March 7, 2000, OSA Technical Digest Series, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2000, paper ThF2, pp. 79–80.

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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

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C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

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W. Mao, X. Wang, M. Al-Mumin, G. Li, “40 Gb∕s all-optical clock recovery using three section self-pulsation DFB lasers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, March 7, 2000, OSA Technical Digest Series, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2000, paper ThF2, pp. 79–80.

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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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Miller, D.

I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
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T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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P.-H. Pham, Y. Kumar, C. Kim, “High performance and area-efficient circuit-switched network on chip design,” in The 6th IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Information Technology, 2006. CIT '06, Seoul, South Korea, Sept. 2006, p. 243.

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N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

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R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

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Renaud, M.

D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

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Robinson, B. S.

J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

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C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

Rouvillain, D.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
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N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

Sakai, Y.

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, “2000-km WDM transmission of 10×107-Gb∕s RZ-DQPSK,” presented at European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, Sept. 24–28, 2006, paper Th 4.1.3.

Salis, A.

Sano, A.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Sartorius, B.

C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, S. Schelhase, M. Möhrle, S. Bauer, “Self-pulsating DFB laser for all-optical clock recovery at 40 Gbit∕s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 327–328, 2000.
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Sato, R.

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Moriwaki, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, “Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 1360–1362, 2002.
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J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Schelhase, S.

C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, S. Schelhase, M. Möhrle, S. Bauer, “Self-pulsating DFB laser for all-optical clock recovery at 40 Gbit∕s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 327–328, 2000.
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R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

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C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

Schneider, K.

R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

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R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

Schulien, C.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Scmidt, E.-D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

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C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, R. Rockell, T. Seely, C. Diot, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec 2002.
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O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
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Shen, J.-S.

K.-C. Chang, J.-S. Shen, T.-F. Chen, “Tailoring circuit-switched network-on-chip to application-specific system-on-chip by two optimization schemes,” in ACM Trans. Design Autom. Electron. Syst., vol. 13, no. 1, article 12, Jan. 2008.
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N. Yamanaka, K. Shiomoto, “DTM: dynamic transfer mode based on dynamically assigned short-hold time-slot relay,” IEICE Trans. Commun., E-82b, pp. 439–446, 1999.

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C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, H. Jäckel, “A 100-mW410 Gb∕s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 2667–2679, 2005.
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Silvestre, S.

N. Sahri, D. Prieto, S. Silvestre, D. Keller, F. Pommereau, M. Renaud, O. Rofidal, A. Dupas, F. Dorgueille, D. Chiaroni, “A highly integrated 32-SOA gates optoelectronic module suitable for IP milti-terabit optical packet routers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001, Anaheim, CA, 2001, vol. 4, pp. PD32-1–PD32-3.

Sim, E.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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Smit, G. J. M.

P. T. Wolkotte, G. J. M. Smit, G. K. Rauwerda, L. T. Smit, “An energy-efficient reconfigurable circuit-switched network-on-chip,” in 19th IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., 2005. Proceedings, Denver, CO, Apr. 4–8, 2005, paper A155.

Smit, L. T.

P. T. Wolkotte, G. J. M. Smit, G. K. Rauwerda, L. T. Smit, “An energy-efficient reconfigurable circuit-switched network-on-chip,” in 19th IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., 2005. Proceedings, Denver, CO, Apr. 4–8, 2005, paper A155.

Solgaard, O.

I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

Song, H.

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G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0—controlling optical networks,” White paper, Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001.

Spiekman, L.

J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Stavdas, A.

Stefanov, B. B.

J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Sun, J.

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wang, “All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 91, nos. 3–4, pp. 421–424, June 2008.
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J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

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S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Yamazaki, S. Tomabechi, A. Uetake, M. Ekawa, K. Morito, “Polarization-insensitive monolithically-integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large gain and high extinction ratio,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OWE2.

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K.-H. Tsai, D.-W. Wang, “Lower bounds for wide-sense non-blocking Clos network,” in Computing and Combinatorics: 4th Annual Int. Conf., Taipei, Taiwan, August 1998, pp. 213–218, vol. 1449 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1998.

Tsiang, D.

G. Epps, D. Tsiang, T. Boures, “System power challenges,” presented at Cisco Routing Research Seminar, Aug. 29–30, 2006.

Tsuda, T.

M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, pp. 383–394, 2005.
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A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

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S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Yamazaki, S. Tomabechi, A. Uetake, M. Ekawa, K. Morito, “Polarization-insensitive monolithically-integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large gain and high extinction ratio,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OWE2.

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H. R. van As, “Time for a change in electronic and photonic switching,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2008. ICTON 2008, Athens, Greece, June 22–26, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 140–143.

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C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Volckaert, B.

J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

Wang, D.-W.

K.-H. Tsai, D.-W. Wang, “Lower bounds for wide-sense non-blocking Clos network,” in Computing and Combinatorics: 4th Annual Int. Conf., Taipei, Taiwan, August 1998, pp. 213–218, vol. 1449 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1998.

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J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Wang, J.

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wang, “All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 91, nos. 3–4, pp. 421–424, June 2008.
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Wang, J. P.

J. P. Wang, S. J. Savage, B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, R. Mu, H. Wang, L. Spiekman, B. B. Stefanov, “Regeneration using an SOA-MZI in a 100-pass 10,000-km recirculating fiber loop,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conf. and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Baltimore, MD, May 6, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper CMZ1.

Wang, X.

W. Mao, X. Wang, M. Al-Mumin, G. Li, “40 Gb∕s all-optical clock recovery using three section self-pulsation DFB lasers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Baltimore, MD, March 7, 2000, OSA Technical Digest Series, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2000, paper ThF2, pp. 79–80.

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J. Baert, M. De Leenheer, B. Volckaert, T. Wauters, P. Thysebaert, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical switching for data-intensive media grid applications,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Design of Next Generation Optical Networks, Ghent, Belgium, Feb. 2006, pp. 9–14.

Weimann, G.

R.-E. Makon, R. Driad, K. Schneider, M. Ludwig, R. Aidam, R. Quay, M. Schlechtweg, G. Weimann, “80 Gbit∕s monolithically integrated clock and data recovery circuit with 1:2 DEMUX using InP-based DHBTs,” in IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symp., 2005, CSIC ’05, Palm Springs, CA, Oct. 30–Nov. 2005, pp. 268–271.

Weiske, C.-J.

R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, “Integrated 100 Gbit∕s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 5, 2006, Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper PDP37.

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Winzer, P. J.

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D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, T. Fjelde, C. Janz, B. Dagens, M. Renaud, “40-Gb∕s all-optical wavelength conversion, regeneration, and demultiplexing in an SOA-based all-active Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 3332–334, 2000.

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P. T. Wolkotte, G. J. M. Smit, G. K. Rauwerda, L. T. Smit, “An energy-efficient reconfigurable circuit-switched network-on-chip,” in 19th IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., 2005. Proceedings, Denver, CO, Apr. 4–8, 2005, paper A155.

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E. W. M. Wong, M. Zukerman, “Analysis of an optical hybrid switch,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 108–110, 2006.
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C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “10×111 Gbit∕s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP22.

Xia, T. J.

Yamada, T.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Yamagishi, F.

M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, pp. 383–394, 2005.
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Yamanaka, N.

N. Yamanaka, K. Shiomoto, “DTM: dynamic transfer mode based on dynamically assigned short-hold time-slot relay,” IEICE Trans. Commun., E-82b, pp. 439–446, 1999.

Yamazaki, S.

S. Tanaka, S.-H. Jeong, S. Yamazaki, S. Tomabechi, A. Uetake, M. Ekawa, K. Morito, “Polarization-insensitive monolithically-integrated 8:1 SOA gate switch with large gain and high extinction ratio,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OWE2.

Yano, M.

M. Yano, F. Yamagishi, T. Tsuda, “Optical MEMS for photonic switching-compact and stable optical crossconnect switches for simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in recent photonic networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, pp. 383–394, 2005.
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Yee, D. S.

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
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Yoshida, E.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb∕s(204×111 Gb∕s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exposition and The Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, March 25, 2007, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2007, paper PDP20.

Yu, K.

I. Keslassy, S.-T. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, N. McKeown, “Scaling internet routers using optics,” in Proc. 2003 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, Aug. 25–29, 2003, pp. 189–200.

Zukerman, M.

E. W. M. Wong, M. Zukerman, “Analysis of an optical hybrid switch,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 108–110, 2006.
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ACM Trans. Design Autom. Electron. Syst. (1)

K.-C. Chang, J.-S. Shen, T.-F. Chen, “Tailoring circuit-switched network-on-chip to application-specific system-on-chip by two optimization schemes,” in ACM Trans. Design Autom. Electron. Syst., vol. 13, no. 1, article 12, Jan. 2008.
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wang, “All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 91, nos. 3–4, pp. 421–424, June 2008.
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C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 32, pp. 406–424, 1953.
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C. R. Phys. (1)

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, B. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, “All-optical signal regeneration: from first principles to a 40 Gbit∕s system demonstration,” C. R. Phys., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 163–173, Jan.–Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, S. Schelhase, M. Möhrle, S. Bauer, “Self-pulsating DFB laser for all-optical clock recovery at 40 Gbit∕s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 327–328, 2000.
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

M. Y. Jeon, Y. A. Leem, D. C. Kim, E. Sim, S.-B. Kim, H. Ko, D. S. Yee, K. H. Park, “40 Gbps all-optical 3R regeneration and format conversion with related InP-based semiconductor devices,” ETRI J., vol. 29, pp. 633–640, 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

E. W. M. Wong, M. Zukerman, “Analysis of an optical hybrid switch,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 108–110, 2006.
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IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

C. M. Gauger, P. J. Kuhn, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, Aug. 2006.
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A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 144–151, July 2001.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of routing and management enhancements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 144–150, Jan. 2001.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. J. Chao, K.-L. Deng, Z. Jing, “Petastar: a petabit photonic packet switch,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1096–1112, 2003.
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Hatta, T. Miyahara, Y. Miyazaki, K. Takagi, K. Matsumoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Motoshima, K. Mishina, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, “Polarization-insensitive monolithic 40-Gbps SOA-MZI wavelength converter with narrow active waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 13, pp. 32–39, 2007.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic architecture of a high-capacity switching node. OA, optical amplifier; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexing; OTDM, optical time-division multiplexing; OCDM, optical code-division multiplexing; SCM, subcarrier multiplexing; MEMS, micro-electro-mechanical system; AWG, arrayed waveguide grating; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Packet-switched electronic core node. TP/FE, traffic processor/forwarding engine; E/O electro-optical conversion; PHY, physical layer chip; MAC, media access control chip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Packet/burst-switched optical core node. WC, wavelength converter; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Circuit-switched optical core node.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Circuit-switched electronic core node.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Generic structure of a packet router’s line card with 40 Gbit s ports. TIA, transimpedance amplifier.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Generic structure of a line card with 100 Gbit s ports. DQPSK, differential quadrature phase shift keying; DI, delay interferometer; DCR, data and clock recovery; CW, continuous wave; BP, balanced photodetector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Structure of a three-stage Clos network.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Active SOAs in an optical packet switch based on the Spanke architecture.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Structure of an all-optical (a) wavelength converter and (b) 3R regenerator considered for use in optical core nodes. DFB, distributed feedback laser; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; OBF, optical bandpass filter; ODL, optical delay line; SPLD, self-pulsating laser diode.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of a feed-forward synchronizer that utilizes SOAs and optical delay lines (ODLs).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Estimated total power consumption of electronic core switches and routers.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Estimated total power consumption of electronic core node architectures together with examples of current high-performance routers.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Calculated power consumption allocation by subsystems. The power conversion efficiency is not included.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Power consumption of 40 and 100 Gbit s line cards when assuming non-return-to-zero DQPSK transmission for 100 Gbits s (fabric interface and switching modules are not taken into account).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Estimated total power consumption of optical core nodes.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Signal path through an optical packet switch based on the Spanke architecture.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Maximum number of cascaded SOA stages.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Considered Values of Power Consumption and Calculated Total Power Consumption of a 320 Gbits s Packet-Switched Node

Equations (13)

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p = 2 n 1 , n = N s 2 , k = N s n , N s = B b ,
P SW = 2 P SWD N SWD n p + P SWD N SWD k 2 ,
P SW = 4 P SWD N SWD B b ( 1 b 8 B ) .
N active_SOA = N s ( 4 log 2 p + 2 log 2 k ) .
N active_SOA = 2 B b [ 1 2 log 2 ( 2 B b ) + 2 log 2 ( 2 B b 1 ) ] .
P out , i = L C L SOA , in L SOA , out G P in , i + L SOA , out P ASE ,
P ASE = p n sp h ν ( G 1 ) B O .
G sig , q = ( L C L SOA , in L SOA , out G ) q .
G sp , q = ( G sig , q 1 q L in L SOA , in L SOA , out ) 1 G sig , q 1 G sig , q 1 q .
P out , q = G sig , q P in + G sp , q P ASE , eff ,
OSNR q = P sig , q P noise , q = G sig , q P in G sp , q P ASE , eff .
γ = ( G sig , q P in ) 2 4 G sp , q n sp h υ B e ( G sig , q P in + G sp , q n sp h υ B OF ) ,
P SOA , q = P out , q L SOA , out P sat .