Abstract

To meet diverse, bandwidth-intensive applications envisioned in future optical networks, as well as address the shortcomings of the current Internet, novel networking technologies will be of great importance. We discuss several key issues for the future Internet, including network virtualization mechanisms, a programmable network architecture, parallelism of optical transmission, and guaranteed quality of service provisioning. Moreover, a new type of virtualized optical substrate architecture is proposed that utilizes optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), along with subwavelength switching and generic packet routing to realize the network bandwidth programmability. The main features, benefits, and design and implementation challenges of optical OFDMA networking based on sliceable routers are also described. Finally, an adaptive subcarrier allocation and assignment algorithm for future OFDMA-based networking is investigated, and a performance comparison between the proposed approach and legacy time division multiple access (TDMA)-based techniques is drawn.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Kelly, “Effective bandwidths at multi-class queues,” Queuing Syst., vol. 9, pp. 5–16, 1991.
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2008 (2)

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Qiao, W. Wei, X. Liu, “Extending generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile and transparent optical network (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 104–114, 2006.
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 587–589, 2006.
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3767–3775, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Anderson, L. Peterson, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “Overcoming the Internet impasse through virtualization,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 34–41, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Zhang, “Service disciplines for guaranteed performance service in packet-switching networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1374–1396, 1995.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Kelly, “Effective bandwidths at multi-class queues,” Queuing Syst., vol. 9, pp. 5–16, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, L. Peterson, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “Overcoming the Internet impasse through virtualization,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 34–41, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, B.

B. Arnaud, “CA*net 4 research program update—UCLP roadmap for creating user controlled and architected networks using service oriented architecture,” 2006.

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 587–589, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, H.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Bavier, A.

A. Bavier, N. Feamster, M. Huang, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, “In VINI veritas: realistic and controlled network experimentation,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, 2006, pp. 3–14.

Bocoi, A.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Bunge, C. A.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Campbell, A. T.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Cavendish, D.

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Crowley, P.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

de Meer, H. G.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Dehart, J.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, I. B.

Dodd, R.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Feamster, N.

A. Bavier, N. Feamster, M. Huang, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, “In VINI veritas: realistic and controlled network experimentation,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, 2006, pp. 3–14.

Freestone, A.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Heller, B.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

A. Bavier, N. Feamster, M. Huang, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, “In VINI veritas: realistic and controlled network experimentation,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, 2006, pp. 3–14.

Kelly, F.

F. Kelly, “Effective bandwidths at multi-class queues,” Queuing Syst., vol. 9, pp. 5–16, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Kounavis, M. E.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Kuhms, F.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Liou, C.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

C. Qiao, W. Wei, X. Liu, “Extending generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile and transparent optical network (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 104–114, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, J.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, O.

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Melle, S.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Miki, K.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, M.

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Parulkar, G.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Peterson, L.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, L. Peterson, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “Overcoming the Internet impasse through virtualization,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 34–41, 2005.
[CrossRef]

A. Bavier, N. Feamster, M. Huang, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, “In VINI veritas: realistic and controlled network experimentation,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, 2006, pp. 3–14.

Qian, D.

W. Wei, L. Zong, D. Qian, “Wavelength-based sub-carrier multiplexing and grooming for optical networks bandwidth virtualization,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper PDP35.

Qiao, C.

C. Qiao, W. Wei, X. Liu, “Extending generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile and transparent optical network (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 104–114, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Rambach, F.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Rexford, J.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Bavier, N. Feamster, M. Huang, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, “In VINI veritas: realistic and controlled network experimentation,” in Proc. 2006 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, Pisa, Italy, 2006, pp. 3–14.

Schupke, D. A.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Schuster, M.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Shenker, S.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, L. Peterson, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “Overcoming the Internet impasse through virtualization,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 34–41, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, pp. 587–589, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Spinnler, B.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, D. A. Schupke, C. A. Bunge, B. Spinnler, “Cost comparison of networks using traditional 10 and 40 Gb∕s transponders versus OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OThB4.

Turner, J.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, L. Peterson, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “Overcoming the Internet impasse through virtualization,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 34–41, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Vasic, B.

Vicente, J.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Villela, D.

A. T. Campbell, H. G. de Meer, M. E. Kounavis, K. Miki, J. Vicente, D. Villela, “A survey of programmable networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 7–23, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Vusirikala, V.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

C. Qiao, W. Wei, X. Liu, “Extending generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) for polymorphous, agile and transparent optical network (PATON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 104–114, 2006.
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, L. Zong, D. Qian, “Wavelength-based sub-carrier multiplexing and grooming for optical networks bandwidth virtualization,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper PDP35.

Welch, D.

S. Melle, R. Dodd, S. Grubb, C. Liou, V. Vusirikala, D. Welch, “Bandwidth virtualization enables long-haul WDM transport of 40 Gb∕s and 100 Gb∕s services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 22–29, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wiseman, C.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.-H.

D. Cavendish, K. Murakami, S.-H. Yun, O. Matsuda, M. Nishihara, “New transport services for next-generation SONET/SDH systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 80–87, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zar, D.

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, “Service disciplines for guaranteed performance service in packet-switching networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1374–1396, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Zong, L.

W. Wei, L. Zong, D. Qian, “Wavelength-based sub-carrier multiplexing and grooming for optical networks bandwidth virtualization,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper PDP35.

ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, J. Turner, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” ACM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2008.
[CrossRef]

ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (2)

J. Turner, P. Crowley, J. Dehart, A. Freestone, B. Heller, F. Kuhms, S. Kumar, J. Lockwood, J. Lu, M. Wilson, C. Wiseman, D. Zar, “Supercharging PlanetLab—a high performance, multi-application, overlay network platform,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 85–96, Oct. 2007.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of network virtualization supporting heterogeneous services in the future Internet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiplane, multilayer, and multigranularity network virtualization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical OFDMA-based link virtualization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Proposed sliceable router structure based on the novel packet over optical OFDMA interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of an optical OFDMA network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical OFDMA (a) transmitter and (b) receiver structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) TDMA-based versus (b) OFDMA-based bandwidth sharing and link scheduling models for various traffic flows and (c), (d) the corresponding comparison results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Adaptive OFDM subcarrier allocation and assignment algorithm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Performance comparisons of adaptive subcarrier allocation under various types of traffic flows.

Equations (4)

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b i = λ [ l + 1 2 ( τ l C ) ( μ 2 + σ 2 ) ] .
N TDMA = 2 C ( τ C l ) λ l [ l ( α 1 ) + 2 τ C ] ,
N TDMA = C λ l 1 λ τ .
N OFDMA = S λ l U BPSK C λ l .