Abstract

The issue of transmitting optical packets (called slots in this paper) smoothly toward an egress switch appears to be overlooked in bandwidth access schemes proposed for optical packet-switched (OPS) networks. Here, we explain the benefits of providing an even (smooth) slot transmission and propose four basic metrics and three hybrid metrics to achieve an even slot transmission from an ingress switch of a multiwavelength/fiber slotted OPS network. The even slot transmission can help improve network performance parameters required for Internet applications. An index parameter is also introduced for each method, and a formulation is provided to gauge how even a transmission is among different combinations of frame periods, wavelengths, and fibers. These formulations can provide us with a new approach to relatively compare different bandwidth access schemes in order to determine which scheme can provide an even transmission of traffic to an OPS network. An example is provided for the comparison of two existing bandwidth access schemes in terms of even transmission of traffic.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, A. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Papazoglou, G. Papadimitriou, A. Pomportsis, “Design alternatives for optical-packet-interconnection network architectures,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 810–825, 2004.
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  5. M. J. O’Mahony, C. Politi, D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, “Future optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 4684–4696, 2006.
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  6. S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “A comparison study between slotted and unslotted all-optical packet-switched network with priority-based routing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuK2.
  7. A. G. P. Rahbar, O. Yang, “Fiber-channel tradeoff for reducing collisions in slotted single-hop optical packet-switched (OPS) networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 897–912, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li, G. Xiao, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “On the benefits of multifiber optical packet switch,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 376–378, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, “Combining contention resolution schemes in WDM optical packet switches with multifiber interfaces,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 74–89, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
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  19. I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
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  23. “OPNET,” http://www.opnet.com.

2009 (1)

A. G. P. Rahbar, O. Yang, “Distribution-based bandwidth access scheme in slotted all-optical packet-switched networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 744–758, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Li, G. Xiao, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “On the benefits of multifiber optical packet switch,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 376–378, 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Papazoglou, G. Papadimitriou, A. Pomportsis, “Design alternatives for optical-packet-interconnection network architectures,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 810–825, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2595–2604, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, A. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Throughput and delay in multihop TDM radio networks,” INFOR, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 178–189, 1990.

Bansal, Y.

Berde, B.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Black, D.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Blake, S.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Callegati, F.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Carlson, M.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Cerroni, W.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Throughput and delay in multihop TDM radio networks,” INFOR, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 178–189, 1990.

Davies, E.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Dembeck, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Develder, C.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Dixit, A.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, A. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mosse, “Time slot allocation for real-time messages with negotiable distance constraints,” in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp., 1998, pp. 131–136.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, “Scheduling algorithms for dynamic message streams with distance constraints in TDMA protocol,” in Proc. European Conf. Real-Time Systems, 2000, pp. 239–246.

Eilenberger, G.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

El-Bawab, T. S.

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Throughput and delay in multihop TDM radio networks,” INFOR, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 178–189, 1990.

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

Y. Li, G. Xiao, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “On the benefits of multifiber optical packet switch,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 376–378, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, “Throughput and delay in multihop TDM radio networks,” INFOR, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 178–189, 1990.

Keslassy, I.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

Kodialam, M.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Koerber, W.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lakshma, T. V.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Le Sauze, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Leligou, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Xiao, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “On the benefits of multifiber optical packet switch,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 376–378, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Mahony, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Melhem, R.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, “Scheduling algorithms for dynamic message streams with distance constraints in TDMA protocol,” in Proc. European Conf. Real-Time Systems, 2000, pp. 239–246.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mosse, “Time slot allocation for real-time messages with negotiable distance constraints,” in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp., 1998, pp. 131–136.

Mortensen, B.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mosse, D.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mosse, “Time slot allocation for real-time messages with negotiable distance constraints,” in Proc. IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symp., 1998, pp. 131–136.

Mossé, D.

L. Dong, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, “Scheduling algorithms for dynamic message streams with distance constraints in TDMA protocol,” in Proc. European Conf. Real-Time Systems, 2000, pp. 239–246.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, A. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “A comparison study between slotted and unslotted all-optical packet-switched network with priority-based routing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2001, paper TuK2.

F. Xue, S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, “The performance improvement in optical packet-switched networks by traffic shaping of self-similar traffic,” in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002, pp. 218–219.

Muretto, G.

Nejabati, R.

Neri, F.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M. J.

Pan, Z.

Papadimitriou, G.

Papazoglou, C.

Pickavet, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Politi, C.

Pomportsis, A.

Rafel, A.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, C.

G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, “Combining contention resolution schemes in WDM optical packet switches with multifiber interfaces,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 74–89, 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Raffaelli, P. Zaffoni, “Packet assembly at optical packet network access and its effects on TCP performance,” in Proc. IEEE High Performance Switching and Routing, 2003, pp. 141–146.

Rahbar, A. G. P.

A. G. P. Rahbar, O. Yang, “Distribution-based bandwidth access scheme in slotted all-optical packet-switched networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 744–758, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. G. P. Rahbar, O. Yang, “Fiber-channel tradeoff for reducing collisions in slotted single-hop optical packet-switched (OPS) networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, pp. 897–912, 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. G. P. Rahbar, O. W. W. Yang, “Even slot-transmission in slotted OPS networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2008, pp. 391–395.

Renaud, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Rodeheffer, T.

T. Rodeheffer, J. B. Saxe, “Smooth scheduling in a cell-based switching network,” Digital Systems Research Center, Tech. Rep. 150, Feb. 1998, http://www.research.digital.com/SRC.

Saxe, J. B.

T. Rodeheffer, J. B. Saxe, “Smooth scheduling in a cell-based switching network,” Digital Systems Research Center, Tech. Rep. 150, Feb. 1998, http://www.research.digital.com/SRC.

Shin, J.

T. S. El-Bawab, J. Shin, “Optical packet switching in core networks: between vision and reality,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 60–65, Sept. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

Solé-Pareta, J.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, G. Eilenberger, “The European IST Project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1026–1040, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Stiliadis, D.

I. Keslassy, M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshma, D. Stiliadis, “On guaranteed smooth scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 1364–1375, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Weiss, W.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Xiao, G.

Y. Li, G. Xiao, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “On the benefits of multifiber optical packet switch,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 376–378, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Xue, F.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2595–2604, 2003.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, “The performance improvement in optical packet-switched networks by traffic shaping of self-similar traffic,” in Proc. IEEE Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002, pp. 218–219.

Yang, O.

A. G. P. Rahbar, O. Yang, “Distribution-based bandwidth access scheme in slotted all-optical packet-switched networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 744–758, 2009.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OPS network model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Even assignment problem.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three types of slot distributions at τ = 10 slot sets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration for maximum index computations at τ = 10 slot sets, f = 2 fibers, and W = 3 wavelengths per fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three types of slot distributions at τ = 10 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three types of slot distributions at τ = 10 slot sets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two types of slot distributions at τ = 10 slot sets.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three distributions at τ = 8 slot sets, n e = 3 torrents, f = 2 fibers, and W = 3 wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average LB and FD distribution indices.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average EDF de and EDF di distribution indices.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ratio of R L under TTA.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Hybrid distribution indices under Model1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Map of Evenness Problems to the EAP Problem

Tables Icon

Table 2 Computation of Hybrid Indices for Three Distributions Shown in Fig. 8

Equations (26)

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X = j = 0 α 1 m j β α X * ,
X * = j = 0 α 1 m j β α .
X * = k ( β α β α ) + ( α k ) ( β α β α ) = 2 ( α β α β ) ( β α β α ) .
X DI , i = j = 0 N i 1 d j τ N i X DI , i * ,
X DI , i * = j = 0 N i 1 d j * τ N i .
X DI , i * = u ( τ N i τ N i ) + ( N i u ) ( τ N i τ N i ) = 2 ( ( N i ( τ N i + 1 ) τ ) ( τ N i τ N i ) .
X DI = 1 n e i X DI , i .
X DE , i = j = 0 τ 1 y j Z i τ X DE , i * ,
X DE , i * = 2 ( τ Z i τ Z i ) ( Z i τ Z i τ ) .
X DE = 1 n e i X DE , i .
X FD = j = 0 n e 1 Z j Z t n e X FD * ,
X FD * = 2 ( n e Z t n e Z t ) ( Z t n e Z t n e ) .
X LB = j = 0 τ 1 θ j Z t τ X LB * ,
X LB * = 2 ( τ Z t τ Z t ) ( Z t τ Z t τ ) .
X DI , i = for d j > τ N i ( d j τ N i ) + for d j τ N i ( τ N i d j ) X DI , i * .
X DI , i max = 1 × ( τ N i + 1 τ N i ) + ( N i 1 ) ( τ N i 1 ) X DI , i * = 2 ( N i 1 ) ( τ N i 1 ) X DI , i * .
X DI Norm = 1 n e i = 0 n e 1 X DI , i Norm .
X DE , i max = Z i f W f W Z i τ + Z i mod ( f W ) Z i τ + ( τ Z i f W ) Z i τ X DE , i * .
X DE , i max = Z i f W f W Z i τ + ( τ Z i f W ) Z i τ X DE , i * .
X DE Norm = 1 n e i = 0 n e 1 X DE , i Norm .
X FD max = 1 × ( Z t Z t n e ) + ( n e 1 ) ( Z t n e ) X FD * = 2 ( Z t Z t n e ) X FD * .
X LB max = Z t f W f W Z t τ + Z t mod ( f W ) Z t τ + ( τ Z t f W ) Z t τ X LB * .
X LB max = Z t f W f W Z t τ + ( τ Z t f W ) Z t τ X LB * .
H 1 = X DI Norm + X DE Norm 2
H 2 = X DI Norm + X DE Norm + X LB Norm 3
H 3 = X DI Norm + X DE Norm + X LB Norm + X FD Norm 4