Abstract

New signaling suites for a distributed control plane in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks, such as generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) and automatic switched optical networks (ASON), allow one to cope with the increasing variability of traffic patterns to be suppor ted by operators by providing a means to dynamically set up and release connections. The dissemination of link-state information [usually provided by routing protocols such as open-shortest-path-first traffic engineering (OSPF-TE)] is essential in this kind of control-plane enabled network: in particular, this information has to be continuously updated to allow routing algorithms to efficiently carry out the path computation. Most of the studies on dynamic traffic routing tend to neglect the effect of delays in control-information distribution on routing performance: in particular, even when the control plane is considered as in testbeds, emulators, or some simulations, the analysis of the effects of control plane delays is limited to a small range of values, applicable to well-specified contexts. Applying a very general control-delay representation, we are able to provide a wide-range simulative study to quantify the effect of sig naling on routing performance, mainly by using the blocking probability metric. We are able to evaluate the effect of outdated information (1) for a wide interval of control delay values, (2) for a large set of routing scenarios, considering, e.g., unprotected, dedica ted, and shared path protection routing, and (3) quan tifying the different delay effects in the absence or in the presence of wavelength conversion capabilities.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching GMPLS architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3945, Oct. 2004.
  4. ITU-T G.8080/Y.1304, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical network (ASON),” 2001.
  5. L. Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3473, Jan. 2003.
  6. J. Zhou, X. Yuan, “A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information,” in Proc. 2002 Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 18–21, 2002, pp. 207–213.
  7. G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.
  8. G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.
  9. Z. Pandi, L. Wosinska, “On temporary inconsistency of the link state database with prompt update policies,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 437–440.
  10. A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.
  11. S. Shen, I. G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 1112–1120, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zheng, H. Mouftah, “Distributed lightpath control based on destination routing in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 3, pp. 38–46, 2002.
  13. T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2003. (DRCN 2003), Banff, Canada, Oct. 19–22, 2003, pp. 122–130.
  14. S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.
  15. X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.
  16. J. Moy, “RFC2328—OSPF Version 2,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 2328, April 1998.
  17. R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.
  18. C. Ou, J. Zang, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “New and improved approaches for shared-path protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, pp. 1223–1232, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “OSPF extensions in support of generalized MPLS,” RFC 4203, Internet Working Group Internet Draft, October 2005.
  20. S. Shen, G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “The performance of periodic link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–10.

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Zheng, H. Mouftah, “Distributed lightpath control based on destination routing in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 3, pp. 38–46, 2002.

2001 (1)

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Apostolopoulos, G.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.

Bernstein, G.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Casellas, R.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

Castoldi, P.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.

Cerutti, I.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.

Cheng, T. H.

S. Shen, I. G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 1112–1120, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “The performance of periodic link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–10.

Comellas, J.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

Darisala, S.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Domingo-Pascual, J.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

Elie-Dit-Cosaque, D.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Fumagalli, A.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Giorgetti, A.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.

Guérin, R.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.

Inglima, S.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2003. (DRCN 2003), Banff, Canada, Oct. 19–22, 2003, pp. 122–130.

Jue, J.

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Junven, G.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

Junyent, G.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

Kamat, S.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.

Kothandaraman, P.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Martinez, R.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

Masip-Bruin, X.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

McGuire, A.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2003. (DRCN 2003), Banff, Canada, Oct. 19–22, 2003, pp. 122–130.

Mouftah, H.

J. Zheng, H. Mouftah, “Distributed lightpath control based on destination routing in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 3, pp. 38–46, 2002.

Moy, J.

J. Moy, “RFC2328—OSPF Version 2,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 2328, April 1998.

Mukherjee, B.

C. Ou, J. Zang, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, B. Mukherjee, “New and improved approaches for shared-path protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, pp. 1223–1232, 2004.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, R.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

Okamawari, T.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2003. (DRCN 2003), Banff, Canada, Oct. 19–22, 2003, pp. 122–130.

Ou, C.

Pandi, Z.

Z. Pandi, L. Wosinska, “On temporary inconsistency of the link state database with prompt update policies,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 437–440.

Rajagopalan, B.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Saha, D.

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

Sambo, N.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.

Sánchez-López, S.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

Shen, S.

S. Shen, I. G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 1112–1120, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “The performance of periodic link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–10.

Solé-Pareta, J.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

Tacca, M.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Tripathi, S.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.

Valcarenghi, L.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

Wosinska, L.

Z. Pandi, L. Wosinska, “On temporary inconsistency of the link state database with prompt update policies,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 437–440.

Xiao, G.

S. Shen, G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “The performance of periodic link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–10.

Xiao, I. G.

Yuan, X.

J. Zhou, X. Yuan, “A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information,” in Proc. 2002 Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 18–21, 2002, pp. 207–213.

Zang, H.

Zang, J.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, H. Mouftah, “Distributed lightpath control based on destination routing in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 3, pp. 38–46, 2002.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, X. Yuan, “A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information,” in Proc. 2002 Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 18–21, 2002, pp. 207–213.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

H. Zhang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic light-path establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. Saha, B. Rajagopalan, G. Bernstein, “The optical network control plane: state of standards and deployment,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. S29–S34, Aug. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

J. Zheng, H. Mouftah, “Distributed lightpath control based on destination routing in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 3, pp. 38–46, 2002.

Other (15)

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proc. 4th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2003. (DRCN 2003), Banff, Canada, Oct. 19–22, 2003, pp. 122–130.

S. Darisala, A. Fumagalli, P. Kothandaraman, M. Tacca, L. Valcarenghi, M. Ali, D. Elie-Dit-Cosaque, “On the convergence of the link-state advertisement protocol in survivable WDM mesh networks,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 433–477.

X. Masip-Bruin, R. Muñoz, S. Sánchez-López, J. Solé-Pareta, J. Domingo-Pascual, G. Junven, “An adaptive routing mechanism for reducing the routing inaccuracy effects in an ASON,” in Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Feb. 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 1–17.

J. Moy, “RFC2328—OSPF Version 2,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 2328, April 1998.

R. Martinez, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, “Experimental shared path protection in distributed all-optical GMPLS-based networks,” in 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks, 2007. DRCN 2007, La Rochelle, France, Oct. 7–10, 2007, pp. 1–8.

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “OSPF extensions in support of generalized MPLS,” RFC 4203, Internet Working Group Internet Draft, October 2005.

S. Shen, G. Xiao, T. H. Cheng, “The performance of periodic link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2006. BROADNETS 2006, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–5, 2006, pp. 1–10.

E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching GMPLS architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3945, Oct. 2004.

ITU-T G.8080/Y.1304, “Architecture for the automatically switched optical network (ASON),” 2001.

L. Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3473, Jan. 2003.

J. Zhou, X. Yuan, “A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information,” in Proc. 2002 Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 18–21, 2002, pp. 207–213.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’98 Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, Vancouver, Canada, Aug. 17–22, 2008, pp. 17–28.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. Tripathi, “Improving QoS routing performance under inaccurate link state information,” in Proceedings of the 16th Int. Teletraffic Congress, Edinburgh, UK, June 17–11, 1999, pp. 1–19.

Z. Pandi, L. Wosinska, “On temporary inconsistency of the link state database with prompt update policies,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Barcelona, Spain, July 3–7, 2005, vol. 1, pp. 437–440.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Impact of link-state advertisement in GMPLS-based wavelength-routed networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper JWA98.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Network image (NI) and present network (PN).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Carrier’s U.S. nationwide backbone network topology.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total P b for unprotected routing in (a) VWP and (b) WP cases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Total P b for dedicated and shared protected routing in VWP and WP cases (load 100 erlangs). (b) P b components in a VWP unprotected scenario.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute (a) and relative (b) components of P b for SPP routing with increasing control delays (140 erlangs).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effects of outdated information for different values of traffic dynamicity according to Eq. (1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Routing Algorithms

Equations (1)

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D = AR HT ,