Abstract

In the context of the future Internet, all-optical wavelength switched optical networks will play an important role in either evolutionary or revolutionary design paradigms. In any paradigm, dense wavelength domain multiplexing (DWDM) is the most cost-effective technology to increase bandwidth capacity. DWDM provides the basis for a core optical transport infrastructure supporting a wide range of heterogeneous services. However, such all-optical networks raise well-known challenges such as the wavelength continuity constraint (WCC). The WCC is hard to address in a multiarea scenario when provisioning an end-to-end lightpath owing to network topology hiding requirements and the limited exchange of information between areas. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is currently standardizing the path computation element (PCE) architecture, a good candidate to perform multidomain path computation. In such an architecture, the approach named backwards recursive path computation (BRPC), also under standardization at the IETF, aims at overcoming the limitations of the per-domain mechanism. However, although BRPC does provide end-to-end shortest paths, it fails to take into account the WCC, which is the main motivation for this work. We extend the BRPC algorithm and the companion PCE protocol in order to address the end-to-end WCC efficiently. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the different approaches, experimentally showing the improvements of the conceived solution, which has been evaluated in a GMPLS-controlled network of the ADRENALINE testbed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3945, Oct. 2004.
  2. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “OSPF extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4203, Oct. 2005.
  3. A. Farrel, A. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE) based architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4655, Aug. 2006.
  4. J.-P. Vasseu, J.-L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-pcep-15, Sept. 8, 2008.
  5. R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-P. Vasseur, “A backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) procedure to compute shortest constrained inter domain TE label switched paths,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-brpc-09, Apr. 2008.
  7. R. Bradford, J.-P. Vasseur, A. Farrel, “Preserving topology confidentiality in inter domain path computation using a key based mechanism,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-path-key-03, May 2008.
  8. S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.
  10. D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.
  11. A. Farrel, A. Ayyangar, J.-P. Vasseur, “Inter-domain MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering—resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 5151, Feb. 2008.
  12. L. Berger, “GMPLS signaling procedure for egress control,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4003, Feb. 2005.
  13. R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, “Design, implementation and validation within ADRENALINE® testbed of a path computation element for wavelength switched optical networks,” presented at 4th Int. Conf. on IP+Optical Network (iPOP2008), Tokyo, Japan. June 5–8, 2008.
  14. R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, “A path computation element for shared path protection in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 20–25, 2008, pp. 1–2.
  15. R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, “Experimental evaluation of GMPLS enhanced routing for differentiated survivability in all-optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 496–512, May 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.
  17. R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, “Experimental evaluation of GMPLS enhanced routing for differentiated survivability in all-optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 496–512, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Amrani, A.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, A. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE) based architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4655, Aug. 2006.

Awduche, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

Ayyangar, A.

A. Farrel, A. Ayyangar, J.-P. Vasseur, “Inter-domain MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering—resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 5151, Feb. 2008.

Berger, L.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

L. Berger, “GMPLS signaling procedure for egress control,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4003, Feb. 2005.

Bernstein, G.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.

Bradford, R.

R. Bradford, J.-P. Vasseur, A. Farrel, “Preserving topology confidentiality in inter domain path computation using a key based mechanism,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-path-key-03, May 2008.

Casellas, R.

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, “Experimental evaluation of GMPLS enhanced routing for differentiated survivability in all-optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 496–512, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, “Design, implementation and validation within ADRENALINE® testbed of a path computation element for wavelength switched optical networks,” presented at 4th Int. Conf. on IP+Optical Network (iPOP2008), Tokyo, Japan. June 5–8, 2008.

R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, “A path computation element for shared path protection in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 20–25, 2008, pp. 1–2.

Castoldi, P.

F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.

Cugini, F.

F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.

Dasgupta, S.

S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, J. C.

S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Douville, R.

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Farrel, A.

A. Farrel, A. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE) based architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4655, Aug. 2006.

R. Bradford, J.-P. Vasseur, A. Farrel, “Preserving topology confidentiality in inter domain path computation using a key based mechanism,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-path-key-03, May 2008.

A. Farrel, A. Ayyangar, J.-P. Vasseur, “Inter-domain MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering—resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 5151, Feb. 2008.

Gan, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

Junyent, G.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, J.-L.

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Vasseu, J.-L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-pcep-15, Sept. 8, 2008.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.

Li, T.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

Maier, M.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Martinez, R.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Martínez, R.

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, “Experimental evaluation of GMPLS enhanced routing for differentiated survivability in all-optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 496–512, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, “A path computation element for shared path protection in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 20–25, 2008, pp. 1–2.

R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, “Design, implementation and validation within ADRENALINE® testbed of a path computation element for wavelength switched optical networks,” presented at 4th Int. Conf. on IP+Optical Network (iPOP2008), Tokyo, Japan. June 5–8, 2008.

Munoz, R.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, R.

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, “Experimental evaluation of GMPLS enhanced routing for differentiated survivability in all-optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 496–512, May 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, “Design, implementation and validation within ADRENALINE® testbed of a path computation element for wavelength switched optical networks,” presented at 4th Int. Conf. on IP+Optical Network (iPOP2008), Tokyo, Japan. June 5–8, 2008.

R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, “A path computation element for shared path protection in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 20–25, 2008, pp. 1–2.

Otani, T.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.

Paolucci, F.

F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.

Pinart, C.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Rougier, J.-L.

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Secci, S.

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Sorribes, J.

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

Swallow, G.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

Takeda, T.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.

Valcarenghi, L.

F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.

Vasseu, J.-P.

J.-P. Vasseu, J.-L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-pcep-15, Sept. 8, 2008.

Vasseur, A.

A. Farrel, A. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE) based architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4655, Aug. 2006.

Vasseur, J.-P.

S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

R. Bradford, J.-P. Vasseur, A. Farrel, “Preserving topology confidentiality in inter domain path computation using a key based mechanism,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-path-key-03, May 2008.

J.-P. Vasseur, “A backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) procedure to compute shortest constrained inter domain TE label switched paths,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-brpc-09, Apr. 2008.

A. Farrel, A. Ayyangar, J.-P. Vasseur, “Inter-domain MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering—resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 5151, Feb. 2008.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

R. Douville, J.-L. Le Roux, J.-L. Rougier, S. Secci, “A service plane over the PCE architecture for automatic multi-domain connection-oriented services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 94–102, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Munoz, C. Pinart, R. Martinez, J. Sorribes, G. Junyent, M. Maier, A. Amrani, “The ADRENALINE test bed: integrating GMPLS, XML and SNMP in transparent DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 40–48, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

S. Dasgupta, J. C. de Oliveira, J.-P. Vasseur, “Path-computation-element-based architecture for interdomain MPLS/GMPLS traffic engineering: overview and performance,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 30–45, July–Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (13)

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, T. Takeda, T. Otani, “PCEP requirements and extensions for WSON routing and wavelength assignment,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-lee-pce-wson-routing-wavelength-02, June 27, 2008.

J.-P. Vasseur, “A backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) procedure to compute shortest constrained inter domain TE label switched paths,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-brpc-09, Apr. 2008.

R. Bradford, J.-P. Vasseur, A. Farrel, “Preserving topology confidentiality in inter domain path computation using a key based mechanism,” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-path-key-03, May 2008.

F. Paolucci, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Enhancing backward recursive PCE-based computation (BRPC) for inter-domain protected LSP provisioning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, OSA Technical Digest (CD), Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2008, paper OTuA5.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3209, Dec. 2001.

A. Farrel, A. Ayyangar, J.-P. Vasseur, “Inter-domain MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering—resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 5151, Feb. 2008.

L. Berger, “GMPLS signaling procedure for egress control,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4003, Feb. 2005.

R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, “Design, implementation and validation within ADRENALINE® testbed of a path computation element for wavelength switched optical networks,” presented at 4th Int. Conf. on IP+Optical Network (iPOP2008), Tokyo, Japan. June 5–8, 2008.

R. Casellas, R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, “A path computation element for shared path protection in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 20–25, 2008, pp. 1–2.

E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 3945, Oct. 2004.

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “OSPF extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4203, Oct. 2005.

A. Farrel, A. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE) based architecture,” Network Working Group Request for Comments 4655, Aug. 2006.

J.-P. Vasseu, J.-L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” Network Working Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-pce-pcep-15, Sept. 8, 2008.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

BRCP procedure for multidomain path computation from source node a to destination nodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pseudocode for intradomain path computation algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pseudocode for the proposed interdomain path computation algorithm with wavelength information.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Functional architecture of the deployed PCE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OSPF-TE extensions for the dissemination of wavelength status (bitmap encoded) [15].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PCEP handshake and path computation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PCEP objects for the label set, suggested label, and upstream label.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wireshark capture of the implemented extended PCEP and BRPC for WSON, showing the request for a unidirectional unprotected lightpath with random WA between nodes 10.0.50.2 and .11 (PCEs are .1 and .8) and the reply with one path from ABR .7 (7–11, four free wavelengths) and from ABR .4 (4–5–7–11, two free wavelengths).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evaluated network topology, scenario containing 14 nodes in 3 areas.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Obtained blocking probability for the PD, BRPC, and EBRPC-WSON.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Path error decomposition for PD, BRPC, EBRPC-WSON, for 32–72 erlangs

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Path setup delay (including path computation) in milliseconds (logarithmic scale).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Path setup delay histogram in microseconds for both the per-domain and the PCE-based approaches.