Abstract

Given the trend of rapid growth, the manageability and survivability of future optical networks, even for a single administrative domain, are imminent challenges. For a large-scale mesh network with dynamic traffic, maintaining the global state information in a centralized fashion is impractical. Hence, distributed schemes are needed to organize nodes and to manage state information in a more localized manner. One such scheme for organizing nodes is to logically partition or cluster the nodes into a hierarchical structure. However, in optical networks, physically disjoint routes are sought for failure-protection purposes, where the working path and the backup path of a request traverse diverse shared risk link groups (SRLGs). Hence, the clustering of nodes should also be effective in yielding SRLG diversity. In this paper, we address the problem of determining the appropriate clustering of nodes for a large wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) network. We suggest an easy-to-implement, dynamic, and distributed technique that forms clusters adaptively in response to the current network conditions, e.g., node connectivity, bandwidth availability (or traffic load), and SRLGs. We find that considering risk group sharing in network partitioning best handles both scalability and survivability. Simulation results verify the viability of the proposed approach.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2006

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Chu, B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 704–715, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Routing and wavelength assignment in multi-segment WDM optical networks using clustering techniques,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 8, pp. 55–67, 2004.
[CrossRef]

D. Gao, H. Zhang, Z. Zhou, “Domain border node pair based network partition for sub-path protection in optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 12, pp. 6456–6467, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “On the application of the blocking island paradigm in all-optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 1690–1699, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks using the blocking island paradigm,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 7–14, Nov./Dec. 2003.

2002

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

P. Baran, “The beginnings of packet switching: some underlying concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 42–48, 2002.

G. M. Bernstein, V. Sharma, L. Ong, “Interdomain optical routing,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 80–92, 2002.

2001

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Hac, “Improving reliability through architecture partitioning in telecommunication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 12, pp. 193–204, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1964

P. Baran, “On distributed communications networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 12, pp. 1–9, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Acampora, A.

Z. Zhang, D. Guo, A. Acampora, “Logarithmically scalable routing algorithms in large optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1995, pp. 1290–1299.

Akyamaç, A. A.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

Arakawa, S.

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Balla, A. R.

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Baran, P.

P. Baran, “The beginnings of packet switching: some underlying concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 42–48, 2002.

P. Baran, “On distributed communications networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 12, pp. 1–9, 1964.
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, G.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standards, Addison-Wesley, 2004.

Bernstein, G. M.

Boyle, J.

J. L. L. Roux, J. P. Vasseur, J. Boyle, “Requirements for inter-area MPLS traffic engineering,” IETF Internet Draft, 2002, http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/04nov/IDs/draft-ietf-tewg-interarea-mpls-te-req-02.txt.

Brownmiller, C.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Chan, V. W.

Y. Wen, V. W. Chan, L. Zheng, “Efficient fault diagnosis for all-optical networks: an information theoretic approach,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, 2006, pp. 2919–2923.

Chaudhuri, S.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

Chen, B.

B. Chen, R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “On the application of K-center algorithms in hierarchical traffic grooming,” in Proc. 2nd Int. IEEE/Create-Net Workshop on Traffic Grooming, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 295–301.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “A framework for hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks of general topology,” in Proc. IEEE BroadNets, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 167–176.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering and hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 11th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, 2007, pp. 249–258.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering methods for hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Communication Systems, Networks, and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, 2006, pp. 55–59.

Cheng, X.

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

Chiu, A. L.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Chu, X.

X. Chu, B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 704–715, 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003, pp. 1795–1804.

Dharanikota, S.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Dumortier, P.

P. Dumortier, F. Masetti, M. Sotom, “Guidelines for scalable optical telecommunication networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 1995, pp. 1012–1017.

Dutta, R.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering methods for hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Communication Systems, Networks, and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, 2006, pp. 55–59.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering and hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 11th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, 2007, pp. 249–258.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “A framework for hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks of general topology,” in Proc. IEEE BroadNets, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 167–176.

B. Chen, R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “On the application of K-center algorithms in hierarchical traffic grooming,” in Proc. 2nd Int. IEEE/Create-Net Workshop on Traffic Grooming, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 295–301.

François Labourdette, J.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

French, S.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

Frühwirth, J.

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, Y.

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Gao, D.

Greenberg, A.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, D. Rubenstein, A. Greenberg, “Effectiveness of shared risk link group auto-discovery in optical networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2002, pp. 493–495.
[CrossRef]

Guo, D.

Z. Zhang, D. Guo, A. Acampora, “Logarithmically scalable routing algorithms in large optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1995, pp. 1290–1299.

Gupta, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Hac, A.

A. Hac, “Improving reliability through architecture partitioning in telecommunication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 12, pp. 193–204, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Halimi, A.

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Hamdi, M.

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Routing and wavelength assignment in multi-segment WDM optical networks using clustering techniques,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 8, pp. 55–67, 2004.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “On the application of the blocking island paradigm in all-optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 1690–1699, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks using the blocking island paradigm,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 7–14, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Harai, H.

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Hartani, R.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Online clustering for hierarchical WDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Clustering large optical networks for distributed and dynamic multicast,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5263–5267.

Horiguchi, S.

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-H.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Jaekel, A.

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Jiang, X.

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Clustering large optical networks for distributed and dynamic multicast,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5263–5267.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Online clustering for hierarchical WDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

J. P. Jue, G. Xiao, “An adaptive routing algorithm for wavelength-routed optical networks with a distributed control scheme,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), Las Vegas, NV, 2000, pp. 192–197.

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

Kalmanek, C.

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-N.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-U.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

X. Chu, B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 704–715, 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003, pp. 1795–1804.

Li, G.

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R. A.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Masetti, F.

P. Dumortier, F. Masetti, M. Sotom, “Guidelines for scalable optical telecommunication networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 1995, pp. 1012–1017.

Mei, Y.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Efficient distributed control protocols for WDM all-optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 1997, pp. 150–153.

Melhem, R.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

T. Saad, H. T. Mouftah, “Inter-domain wavelength routing in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE 11th Int. Telecommunication Network Strategy and Planning Symp., 2004, pp. 391–396.

Mukherjee, B.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

Müllner, W.

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Murata, M.

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Ngo, S. H.

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Ong, L.

Ou, C.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Papadimitrian, D.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Qiao, C.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Efficient distributed control protocols for WDM all-optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 1997, pp. 150–153.

Rajagopalan, B.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standards, Addison-Wesley, 2004.

Ramamurthy, S.

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control for wavelength routed optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 138–147.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

Rouskas, G. N.

B. Chen, R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “On the application of K-center algorithms in hierarchical traffic grooming,” in Proc. 2nd Int. IEEE/Create-Net Workshop on Traffic Grooming, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 295–301.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering and hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 11th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, 2007, pp. 249–258.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “A framework for hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks of general topology,” in Proc. IEEE BroadNets, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 167–176.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering methods for hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Communication Systems, Networks, and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, 2006, pp. 55–59.

Roux, J. L. L.

J. L. L. Roux, J. P. Vasseur, J. Boyle, “Requirements for inter-area MPLS traffic engineering,” IETF Internet Draft, 2002, http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/04nov/IDs/draft-ietf-tewg-interarea-mpls-te-req-02.txt.

Rubenstein, D.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, D. Rubenstein, A. Greenberg, “Effectiveness of shared risk link group auto-discovery in optical networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2002, pp. 493–495.
[CrossRef]

Saad, T.

T. Saad, H. T. Mouftah, “Inter-domain wavelength routing in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE 11th Int. Telecommunication Network Strategy and Planning Symp., 2004, pp. 391–396.

Saha, D.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standards, Addison-Wesley, 2004.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sebos, P.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, D. Rubenstein, A. Greenberg, “Effectiveness of shared risk link group auto-discovery in optical networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2002, pp. 493–495.
[CrossRef]

Segall, A.

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control for wavelength routed optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 138–147.

Sengupta, A.

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, S.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

Shao, X.

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

Sharma, V.

Sharmaj, V.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Shin, J.-D.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Singhal, N. K.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

Sotom, M.

P. Dumortier, F. Masetti, M. Sotom, “Guidelines for scalable optical telecommunication networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 1995, pp. 1012–1017.

Statovci-Halimi, B.

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Strand, J.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Tkach, R.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Tomic, S.

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Vasseur, J. P.

J. L. L. Roux, J. P. Vasseur, J. Boyle, “Requirements for inter-area MPLS traffic engineering,” IETF Internet Draft, 2002, http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/04nov/IDs/draft-ietf-tewg-interarea-mpls-te-req-02.txt.

Wang, D.

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

Wen, Y.

Y. Wen, V. W. Chan, L. Zheng, “Efficient fault diagnosis for all-optical networks: an information theoretic approach,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, 2006, pp. 2919–2923.

Xiao, G.

J. P. Jue, G. Xiao, “An adaptive routing algorithm for wavelength-routed optical networks with a distributed control scheme,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), Las Vegas, NV, 2000, pp. 192–197.

Xue, Y.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

Yates, J.

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

P. Sebos, J. Yates, D. Rubenstein, A. Greenberg, “Effectiveness of shared risk link group auto-discovery in optical networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2002, pp. 493–495.
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Yun, M.-R.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Z.

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003, pp. 1795–1804.

Z. Zhang, D. Guo, A. Acampora, “Logarithmically scalable routing algorithms in large optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1995, pp. 1290–1299.

Zhemin, D.

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Routing and wavelength assignment in multi-segment WDM optical networks using clustering techniques,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 8, pp. 55–67, 2004.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “On the application of the blocking island paradigm in all-optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 1690–1699, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks using the blocking island paradigm,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 7–14, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Zheng, L.

Y. Wen, V. W. Chan, L. Zheng, “Efficient fault diagnosis for all-optical networks: an information theoretic approach,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, 2006, pp. 2919–2923.

Zheng, W.

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

Zhou, L.

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, K.

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Yates, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, “Control plane design for reliable optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 90–96, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

A. Hac, “Improving reliability through architecture partitioning in telecommunication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 12, pp. 193–204, 1994.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, H. Zang, N. K. Singhal, K. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, R. A. MacDonald, B. Mukherjee, “Subpath protection for scalability and fast recovery in optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1859–1875, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

P. Baran, “On distributed communications networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 12, pp. 1–9, 1964.
[CrossRef]

P. Baran, “The beginnings of packet switching: some underlying concepts,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 42–48, 2002.

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “On the application of the blocking island paradigm in all-optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, pp. 1690–1699, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

X. Chu, B. Li, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment in the presence of wavelength conversion for all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, pp. 704–715, 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun.

Y. Fukushima, H. Harai, S. Arakawa, M. Murata, “A distributed clustering method for hierarchical routing in large-scaled wavelength routed networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E88-B, pp. 3904–3913, 2005.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw.

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.

J.-H. Hwang, J.-D. Shin, M.-R. Yun, J.-N. Kim, S.-S. Lee, S.-U. Kim, “Fault/attack tolerant recovery mechanism under SRLG constraint in the next generation optical VPN,” in Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3262, pp. 386–396, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Networks Mag.

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks using the blocking island paradigm,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 7–14, Nov./Dec. 2003.

Photonic Network Commun.

D. Zhemin, M. Hamdi, “Routing and wavelength assignment in multi-segment WDM optical networks using clustering techniques,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 8, pp. 55–67, 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Tomic, B. Statovci-Halimi, A. Halimi, W. Müllner, J. Frühwirth, “ASON and GMPLS—overview and comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, pp. 111–130, 2004.
[CrossRef]

X. Yuan, R. Melhem, R. Gupta, Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Distributed control protocols for wavelength reservation and their performance evaluation,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 1, pp. 207–218, 1999.
[CrossRef]

A. Sengupta, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. R. Balla, A. Jaekel, “Algorithms for dynamic routing in all-optical networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, pp. 163–184, 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Dumortier, F. Masetti, M. Sotom, “Guidelines for scalable optical telecommunication networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 1995, pp. 1012–1017.

Z. Zhang, D. Guo, A. Acampora, “Logarithmically scalable routing algorithms in large optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1995, pp. 1290–1299.

International Telecommunication Union, “Generic functional architecture of transport networks,” ITU-T Recommendation G.805, 2000.

S. Dharanikota, R. Jain, D. Papadimitrian, R. Hartani, G. Bernstein, V. Sharmaj, C. Brownmiller, Y. Xue, J. Strand, “Inter-domain routing with shared risk groups,” IETF Internet Draft, 2001, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-many-ccamp-srg-00.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control: Architecture, Protocols, and Standards, Addison-Wesley, 2004.

R. Ramaswami, A. Segall, “Distributed network control for wavelength routed optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 138–147.

Y. Mei, C. Qiao, “Efficient distributed control protocols for WDM all-optical networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 1997, pp. 150–153.

H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, J. P. Jue, S. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, “Connection management for wavelength-routed WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999, pp. 1428–1432.

J. P. Jue, G. Xiao, “An adaptive routing algorithm for wavelength-routed optical networks with a distributed control scheme,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), Las Vegas, NV, 2000, pp. 192–197.

A. A. Akyamaç, S. Sengupta, J. François Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, S. French, “Reliability in single domain vs. multi domain optical mesh networks,” in IEEE/OSA Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), Dallas, TX, Sept. 2002, pp. 240–249.

B. Chen, R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, “On the application of K-center algorithms in hierarchical traffic grooming,” in Proc. 2nd Int. IEEE/Create-Net Workshop on Traffic Grooming, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 295–301.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “A framework for hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks of general topology,” in Proc. IEEE BroadNets, Boston, MA, 2005, pp. 167–176.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering methods for hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Communication Systems, Networks, and Digital Signal Processing, Patras, Greece, 2006, pp. 55–59.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, R. Dutta, “Clustering and hierarchical traffic grooming in large scale mesh WDM networks,” in Proc. 11th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Athens, Greece, 2007, pp. 249–258.

J. L. L. Roux, J. P. Vasseur, J. Boyle, “Requirements for inter-area MPLS traffic engineering,” IETF Internet Draft, 2002, http://www3.ietf.org/proceedings/04nov/IDs/draft-ietf-tewg-interarea-mpls-te-req-02.txt.

T. Saad, H. T. Mouftah, “Inter-domain wavelength routing in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE 11th Int. Telecommunication Network Strategy and Planning Symp., 2004, pp. 391–396.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Online clustering for hierarchical WDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

M. M. Hasan, J. P. Jue, “Clustering large optical networks for distributed and dynamic multicast,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5263–5267.

X. Chu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, “A dynamic RWA algorithm in a wavelength-routed all-optical network with wavelength converters,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003, pp. 1795–1804.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, D. Rubenstein, A. Greenberg, “Effectiveness of shared risk link group auto-discovery in optical networks,” in IEEE/OSA Conf. Optical Fiber Communication, 2002, pp. 493–495.
[CrossRef]

X. Shao, L. Zhou, X. Cheng, W. Zheng, Y. Wang, “Best effort shared risk link group (SRLG) failure protection in WDM networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5150–5154.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.

Y. Wen, V. W. Chan, L. Zheng, “Efficient fault diagnosis for all-optical networks: an information theoretic approach,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, 2006, pp. 2919–2923.

Jointly by LION and COST, European Information Society Technologies (IST) Fifth Framework Programme, http://www.ibcn.intec.ugent.be/INTERNAL/NRS/index.html.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distributed clustering algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pan-European 37-node topology.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Paul Baran’s 47-node topology.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Clustering iterations analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Clustering time versus cluster size.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of clusters produced.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Message overhead on network size.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intercluster and intracluster messages.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of the parameter r.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Blocking probability for 37-node network.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Blocking probability for a 140-node network.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Survivability versus restoration rate.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Survivability versus failure rate.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Blocking probability under different cluster sizes for SRLG-aware2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SRLGs in Four Networks