Abstract

Network control planes have made an implicit assumption that the switching devices in a network are symmetric. In wavelength-switched optical networks even the most basic switching element, the reconfigurable add–drop multiplexer, is highly asymmetric. This paper presents a model of optical switching subsystems for use in generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS), route selection, and wavelength assignment. The model covers a large class of switching subsystems without internal wavelength converters. The model is applied to a number of common optical technologies, and a compact encoding for use in the optical control plane is furnished along with a method for deriving a simplified graph representation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” RFC 3945, IETF, 2004.
  2. L. Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling functional description,” RFC 3471, IETF, 2003.
  3. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “Routing extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC 4202, IETF, 2005.
  4. A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Farrel, J. P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, IETF, 2006.
  6. A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.
  7. N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information model for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwainfo-02.txt.
  9. G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information encoding for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-encode-01.txt.
  10. Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, and W. Imajuku, eds., “Framework for GMPLS and PCE control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON),” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-framework-02.txt.
  11. T. Otani, ed., “Generalized labels for G.694 lambda-switching capable label switching routers,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-g-694-lambda-labels-04.txt.
  12. J. Moy, “OSPF version 2, STD 54,” RFC 2328, IETF, 1998.
  13. The ATM Forum, “Private network-network interface specification version 1.1 (PNNI 1.1),” 2002.
  14. D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” RFC 3630, IETF, 2003.
  15. ITU-T, “G.805, Generic functional architecture of transport networks,” 2000.
  16. ITU-T, “G.800, Unified functional architecture of transport networks,” 2007.
  17. K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.
  18. J. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks, Kluwer, 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  19. ITU-T, “G.671, Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems,” 2005.
  20. L. Eldada, “Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5970, paper 597022, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.
  22. P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.
  23. M. Feuer, D. Al-Salameh, “Routing power: a metric for reconfigurable wavelength add/drops,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper TuX1.
  24. J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, “Wavelength-routing capability of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers in dynamic optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. vol. 24, pp. 4296–4303, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Amilhastre, P. Janssen, M. Vilarem, “Computing a minimum biclique cover is polynomial for bipartite domino-free graphs,” in Proc. Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, New Orleans, LA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1997, pp. 36–42.
  26. D. Eppstein, “Arboricity and bipartite subgraph listing algorithms,” Inf. Process. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 207–211, 1994.
    [CrossRef]

2006

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, “Wavelength-routing capability of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers in dynamic optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. vol. 24, pp. 4296–4303, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Eldada, “Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5970, paper 597022, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Eppstein, “Arboricity and bipartite subgraph listing algorithms,” Inf. Process. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 207–211, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Al-Fuqaha, A. I.

A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Al-Salameh, D.

M. Feuer, D. Al-Salameh, “Routing power: a metric for reconfigurable wavelength add/drops,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper TuX1.

Amilhastre, J.

J. Amilhastre, P. Janssen, M. Vilarem, “Computing a minimum biclique cover is polynomial for bipartite domino-free graphs,” in Proc. Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, New Orleans, LA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1997, pp. 36–42.

Andriolli, N.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, J. P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, IETF, 2006.

Bernstein, G.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information encoding for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-encode-01.txt.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information model for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwainfo-02.txt.

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Brungard, D.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

Buron, J.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Chaudhry, G. M.

A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Di Muro, R.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, “Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5970, paper 597022, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Eppstein, D.

D. Eppstein, “Arboricity and bipartite subgraph listing algorithms,” Inf. Process. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 207–211, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Farrel, A.

A. Farrel, J. P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, IETF, 2006.

Feuer, M.

M. Feuer, D. Al-Salameh, “Routing power: a metric for reconfigurable wavelength add/drops,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper TuX1.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Giorgetti, A.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.

Goh, T.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Guizani, M.

A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Hirota, H.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Hui, J.

J. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks, Kluwer, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Janssen, P.

J. Amilhastre, P. Janssen, M. Vilarem, “Computing a minimum biclique cover is polynomial for bipartite domino-free graphs,” in Proc. Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, New Orleans, LA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1997, pp. 36–42.

Kamei, S.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Kaneko, A.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Katz, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” RFC 3630, IETF, 2003.

Kobayashi, M.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Kompella, K.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” RFC 3630, IETF, 2003.

Le Roux, J. L.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

Lee, Y.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information model for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwainfo-02.txt.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information encoding for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-encode-01.txt.

Li, D.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information encoding for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-encode-01.txt.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information model for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwainfo-02.txt.

Mizuno, T.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Moy, J.

J. Moy, “OSPF version 2, STD 54,” RFC 2328, IETF, 1998.

Nayar, B.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Ogawa, I.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Papadimitriou, D.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

Poti, L.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

Ruepp, S.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.

Shiomoto, K.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

Shore, K. A.

Sohma, S.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Tamura, Y.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Tang, J. M.

Valcarenghi, L.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.

Vasseur, J. P.

A. Farrel, J. P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, IETF, 2006.

Vigoureux, M.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

Vilarem, M.

J. Amilhastre, P. Janssen, M. Vilarem, “Computing a minimum biclique cover is polynomial for bipartite domino-free graphs,” in Proc. Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, New Orleans, LA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1997, pp. 36–42.

Yanagisawa, M.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

Yeung, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” RFC 3630, IETF, 2003.

IEEE Commun. Lett.

N. Andriolli, J. Buron, S. Ruepp, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, “Label preference schemes in GMPLS controlled networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 849–851, 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

A. I. Al-Fuqaha, G. M. Chaudhry, M. Guizani, “Routing framework for all-optical DWDM metro and long-haul transport networks with sparse wavelength conversion capabilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1443–1459, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Inf. Process. Lett.

D. Eppstein, “Arboricity and bipartite subgraph listing algorithms,” Inf. Process. Lett., vol. 51, pp. 207–211, 1994.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Proc. SPIE

L. Eldada, “Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5970, paper 597022, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, “Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2006, paper OTuF3.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Poti, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in Conf. Optical Fiber Communication and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, pp. 1–6.

M. Feuer, D. Al-Salameh, “Routing power: a metric for reconfigurable wavelength add/drops,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA: Optical Society of America, 2002, paper TuX1.

A. Farrel, J. P. Vasseur, J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, IETF, 2006.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2006, pp. 1–3.

E. Mannie, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” RFC 3945, IETF, 2004.

L. Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling functional description,” RFC 3471, IETF, 2003.

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, eds., “Routing extensions in support of generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),” RFC 4202, IETF, 2005.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information model for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwainfo-02.txt.

G. Bernstein, Y. Lee, D. Li, “Routing and wavelength assignment information encoding for wavelength switched optical networks,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-encode-01.txt.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, and W. Imajuku, eds., “Framework for GMPLS and PCE control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON),” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-rwa-wson-framework-02.txt.

T. Otani, ed., “Generalized labels for G.694 lambda-switching capable label switching routers,” IETF, 2009, work in progress: draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-g-694-lambda-labels-04.txt.

J. Moy, “OSPF version 2, STD 54,” RFC 2328, IETF, 1998.

The ATM Forum, “Private network-network interface specification version 1.1 (PNNI 1.1),” 2002.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” RFC 3630, IETF, 2003.

ITU-T, “G.805, Generic functional architecture of transport networks,” 2000.

ITU-T, “G.800, Unified functional architecture of transport networks,” 2007.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J. L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, IETF, 2008.

J. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks, Kluwer, 1990.
[CrossRef]

ITU-T, “G.671, Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems,” 2005.

J. Amilhastre, P. Janssen, M. Vilarem, “Computing a minimum biclique cover is polynomial for bipartite domino-free graphs,” in Proc. Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms, New Orleans, LA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1997, pp. 36–42.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One implementation of a type I ROADM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A possible implementation of a type II ROADM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ROADM with waveband add–drop ports.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Initial state of the waveband drop port. The window indicates that the waveband has not been anchored prior to the first wavelength allocation. The white color of the window indicates that no wavelengths have been allocated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allocated and available wavelengths, and the waveband tuning constraint after the first, second, and third wavelength has been allocated. The meanings of the colors are available (white); dropped but available (lighter gray), i.e., reserved; and allocated (darker gray). In this example the width of the waveband is eight channels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A higher-degree ROADM with per-port add–drop.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A higher-degree ROADM with per-node add–drop.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Examples of common fixed WSON subsystems.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A type II ROADM with additional constraints.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) System, (b) λ 1 connectivity, and (c) λ 2 connectivity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

General representation of a WSON switch without wavelength converters.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) General realization, (b) generic realization for the C matrix of Eq. (1).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Reduced graph representation for our two-degree ROADM example.

Equations (20)

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w j k = { 0 if λ k is not in use 1 if λ k is in use } .
C = [ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ] ,
Λ j = { λ j } ,
k w j k 1 .
Λ j = { λ 1 , λ 2 , , λ N } ,
k w j k 1 .
C = [ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ] .
Λ j = { λ 1 , , λ N } , k w j k 8 ,
k l 7 k , l : w j k = 1 , w j l = 1 .
C P = [ 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ] .
C N = [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ] .
F a = [ 1 1 1 ] , F b = [ 1 1 1 ] , F c = [ 1 1 1 ] .
Λ j = { λ N M , λ N M + 1 , , λ N } ,
k w j k 1 .
F = { f i j = 1 i = 1 , j = M + 1 f i j = 0 otherwise } ,
Λ j = { λ 1 , λ 2 , , λ N M 1 } .
C = [ 1 1 1 1 ] .
C λ 1 = [ 1 1 0 1 ] , C λ 2 = [ 1 0 1 1 ] .
{ ( I j , E j ) i p I j , e q E j c p q = 1 } ,
j I j = I , j E j = E .