Abstract

As the Internet expands in reach and capacity, the energy consumption of network equipment increases. To date, the cost of transmission and switching equipment has been considered to be the major barrier to growth of the Internet. But energy consumption rather than cost of the component equipment may eventually become a barrier to continued growth. Research efforts on “greening the Internet” have been initiated in recent years, aiming to develop energy-efficient network architectures and operational strategies so as to reduce the energy consumption of the Internet. The direct benefits of such efforts are to reduce the operational costs in the network and cut the greenhouse footprint of the network. Second, from an engineering point of view, energy efficiency will assist in reducing the thermal issues associated with heat dissipation in large data centers and switching nodes. In the present research, we concentrate on minimizing the energy consumption of an IP over WDM network. We develop efficient approaches ranging from mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models to heuristics. These approaches are based on traditional virtual-topology and traffic grooming designs. The novelty of the framework involves the definition of an energy-oriented model for the IP over WDM network, the incorporation of the physical layer issues such as energy consumption of each component and the layout of optical amplifiers in the design, etc. Extensive optimization and simulation studies indicate that the proposed energy-minimized design can significantly reduce energy consumption of the IP over WDM network, ranging from 25% to 45%. Moreover, the proposed designs can also help equalize the power consumption at each network node. This is useful for real network deployment, in which each node location may be constrained by a limited electricity power supply. Finally, it is also interesting and useful to find that an energy-efficient network design is also a cost-efficient design because of the fact that IP router ports play a dominating role in both energy consumption and network cost in the IP over WDM network.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.
  2. J. Baligan, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in Proc. COIN/ACOFT, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.
  3. The Green Grid, http://www.thegreengrid.org/pages/overview.html.
  4. M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003.
  5. IEEE 802.3 Energy Efficient Ethernet Study Group, http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/eee_study/index.html.
  6. K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
  8. K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Xin, “Blocking analysis of dynamic traffic grooming in mesh WDM opticla networks,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721–733, June 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Cisco whitepaper “Cost comparison between IP-over-DWDM and other core transport architectures,” http://www.cisco.com.
  11. N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, Mar. 2000.
  12. Cisco CRS-1 specification data sheet, http://www.cisco.com.
  13. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Alcatel-Lucent WaveStar OLS 1.6T product specification, http://www.alcatel-lucent.com.
  16. Cisco ONS 15501 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier data sheet, http://www.cisco.com.

2004 (1)

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

C. Xin, “Blocking analysis of dynamic traffic grooming in mesh WDM opticla networks,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721–733, June 2002.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Baligan, J.

J. Baligan, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in Proc. COIN/ACOFT, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

Brown, R.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Caenegem, B. V.

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Christensen, K. J.

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, Mar. 2000.

George, A. d D.

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ghani, N.

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, Mar. 2000.

Gunaratne, C.

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003.

Hinton, K.

J. Baligan, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in Proc. COIN/ACOFT, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

Kawamoto, K.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Koomey, J.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Meier, A.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Mukherjee, B.

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Nordman, B.

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Parys, W. V.

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Piette, M.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Ting, M.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

Tucker, R. S.

J. Baligan, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in Proc. COIN/ACOFT, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

Turck, F. D.

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. S.

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, Mar. 2000.

Xin, C.

C. Xin, “Blocking analysis of dynamic traffic grooming in mesh WDM opticla networks,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721–733, June 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Computer Commun. (1)

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. d D. George, “The next frontier for communicatons networks: power management,” Computer Commun., vol. 27, pp. 1758–1770, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

B. V. Caenegem, W. V. Parys, F. D. Turck, P. M. Demeester, “Dimensioning of survivable WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1146–1157, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Networking (1)

C. Xin, “Blocking analysis of dynamic traffic grooming in mesh WDM opticla networks,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721–733, June 2002.
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

Cisco whitepaper “Cost comparison between IP-over-DWDM and other core transport architectures,” http://www.cisco.com.

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, T. S. Wang, “On IP-over-WDM integration,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 72–84, Mar. 2000.

Cisco CRS-1 specification data sheet, http://www.cisco.com.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US: detailed report and appendices,” Technical Report LBNL-45917, Energy Analysis Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Feb. 2001.

J. Baligan, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in Proc. COIN/ACOFT, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

The Green Grid, http://www.thegreengrid.org/pages/overview.html.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003.

IEEE 802.3 Energy Efficient Ethernet Study Group, http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/eee_study/index.html.

Alcatel-Lucent WaveStar OLS 1.6T product specification, http://www.alcatel-lucent.com.

Cisco ONS 15501 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier data sheet, http://www.cisco.com.

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of an IP over WDM optical network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart of the multi-hop bypass approach.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test networks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of total power consumption between different design approaches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power consumption saving by various lightpath bypass approaches relative to the approach of non-bypass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power consumption of different types of components in IP over WDM networks (n6s8).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power consumption of different types of components in IP over WDM networks (NSFNET).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power consumption geographic distributions under various designs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Network cost comparison between energy-minimized design and cost-minimized design.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Input Data for the Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cost Data for the Study

Equations (7)

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i N E r ( Δ i + j N : i j C i j ) + m N n N m E t w m n + m N n N m E e A m n f m n
j N : i j λ i j s d j N : i j λ j i s d = { λ s d i = s λ s d i = d 0 otherwise } s , d , i N : s d ,
s N d N : s d λ i j s d C i j B i , j N : i j ,
j N : i j C i j + Δ i i i N ,
i N : i j C i j + Δ j j j N ,
n N m w m n i j n N m w n m i j = { C i j m = i C i j m = j 0 otherwise } i , j , m N : i j ,
i N j N : i j w m n i j W f m n m N , n N m .