Abstract

The interworking between different access networks and an optical burst switched network is considered here. The end-to-end performance of the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is evaluated by jointly accounting for access network protocols and the burst assembly procedure at ingress edge nodes, both with wired and wireless access solutions, based on electrical and advanced optical technologies. The influence of the assembly timeout in different access contexts is presented, and numerical investigations are performed by means of ns-2 simulations. Results show that end-to-end throughput is mostly influenced by the delay introduced by access protocols, which arise in the analyzed different scenarios, and by assembly timeout. These results provide meaningful insights about interconnected systems to the task of overall network design and, in particular, to the setup of the interworking unit parameters.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

M. Borri, M. Casoni, M. L. Merani, “Effectiveness and issues of congestion control in 802.11g wireless LANs,” Wireless Netw., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–182, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136–142, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

1997 (1)

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. M. Chiu, R. Jain, “Analysis of the increase and decrease algorithms for congestion avoidance in computer networks,” J. Comput. Netw. ISDN, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14, June 1989.
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, H.

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Borri, M.

M. Borri, M. Casoni, M. L. Merani, “Effectiveness and issues of congestion control in 802.11g wireless LANs,” Wireless Netw., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–182, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Casoni, M.

M. Borri, M. Casoni, M. L. Merani, “Effectiveness and issues of congestion control in 802.11g wireless LANs,” Wireless Netw., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–182, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, USA, Oct. 2004.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D. M.

D. M. Chiu, R. Jain, “Analysis of the increase and decrease algorithms for congestion avoidance in computer networks,” J. Comput. Netw. ISDN, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14, June 1989.
[CrossRef]

Detti, A.

A. Detti, M. Listanti, “Impact of segments aggregation on TCP Reno flows in optical burst switching networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, June 2002, pp. 1803–1812.

Floyd, S.

S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, “An extension to the selective acknowledgement (SACK) option for TCP,” RFC 2883, IETF, July 2000.

Gonzalez de Dios, O.

K. Ramantas, K. Vlachos, O. Gonzalez de Dios, C. Raffaelli, “Window-based burst assembly scheme for TCP traffic over OBS,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 487–495, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, O. Gonzalez de Dios, “Effect of burst assembly on synchronization of TCP flows,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching 2007, Raleigh, NC, USA, Sept. 2007.

Guerriero, C.

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Guidotti, A. M.

A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, O. Gonzalez de Dios, “Effect of burst assembly on synchronization of TCP flows,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching 2007, Raleigh, NC, USA, Sept. 2007.

Jain, R.

D. M. Chiu, R. Jain, “Analysis of the increase and decrease algorithms for congestion avoidance in computer networks,” J. Comput. Netw. ISDN, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14, June 1989.
[CrossRef]

Katz, R. H.

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Lae Young, K.

L. Su Kyoung, K. Lae Young, “Drop policy to enhance TCP performance in OBS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 299–301, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Larrabeiti, D.

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Listanti, M.

A. Detti, M. Listanti, “Impact of segments aggregation on TCP Reno flows in optical burst switching networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, June 2002, pp. 1803–1812.

Luppi, E.

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, USA, Oct. 2004.

Mahdavi, J.

S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, “An extension to the selective acknowledgement (SACK) option for TCP,” RFC 2883, IETF, July 2000.

Martinez-Yelmo, I.

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Mathis, M.

S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, “An extension to the selective acknowledgement (SACK) option for TCP,” RFC 2883, IETF, July 2000.

Merani, M. L.

M. Borri, M. Casoni, M. L. Merani, “Effectiveness and issues of congestion control in 802.11g wireless LANs,” Wireless Netw., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–182, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, USA, Oct. 2004.

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Nejabati, R.

O’Mahony, C.

Padmanabham, V.

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Perros, H. G.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136–142, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Pin-Han, H.

Podolsky, M.

S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, “An extension to the selective acknowledgement (SACK) option for TCP,” RFC 2883, IETF, July 2000.

Politi, C.

Qiao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Qiong, Z.

Raffaelli, C.

K. Ramantas, K. Vlachos, O. Gonzalez de Dios, C. Raffaelli, “Window-based burst assembly scheme for TCP traffic over OBS,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 487–495, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, O. Gonzalez de Dios, “Effect of burst assembly on synchronization of TCP flows,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching 2007, Raleigh, NC, USA, Sept. 2007.

Ramantas, K.

Rouskas, G.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136–142, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Seshan, S.

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Shihada, B.

Simeonidou, D.

Soto, I.

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R.

R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols, Addison-Wesley, 1994.

Su Kyoung, L.

L. Su Kyoung, K. Lae Young, “Drop policy to enhance TCP performance in OBS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 299–301, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Vlachos, K.

Xiuchao, Wu

Wu Xiuchao, “Simulate 802.11b channel within ns-2,” www.comp.nus.edu.sg.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136–142, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Yu, X.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

L. Su Kyoung, K. Lae Young, “Drop policy to enhance TCP performance in OBS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 299–301, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136–142, Jan. 2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, “Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research,” IEEE Netw., 18, no. 3, pp. 16–23, May/June 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabham, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 756–769, Dec. 1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Netw. ISDN (1)

D. M. Chiu, R. Jain, “Analysis of the increase and decrease algorithms for congestion avoidance in computer networks,” J. Comput. Netw. ISDN, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14, June 1989.
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Netw. (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (1)

I. Martinez-Yelmo, I. Soto, D. Larrabeiti, C. Guerriero, “A simulation-based study of TCP performance over an optical burst switched backbone with 802.11 access,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 4606, pp. 120–127, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wireless Netw. (1)

M. Borri, M. Casoni, M. L. Merani, “Effectiveness and issues of congestion control in 802.11g wireless LANs,” Wireless Netw., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171–182, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

The Network Simulator ns-2, www.isi. edu/nsnam/ns.

Wu Xiuchao, “Simulate 802.11b channel within ns-2,” www.comp.nus.edu.sg.

A. M. Guidotti, C. Raffaelli, O. Gonzalez de Dios, “Effect of burst assembly on synchronization of TCP flows,” in Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching 2007, Raleigh, NC, USA, Sept. 2007.

IEEE Standard for Information Tecnology, Std 802.3ah, 2004.

http://www.ieee802.org/3/ah/, IEEE P802.3ah EFM Task Force.

A. Detti, M. Listanti, “Impact of segments aggregation on TCP Reno flows in optical burst switching networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2002, June 2002, pp. 1803–1812.

M. Casoni, E. Luppi, M. L. Merani, “Impact of assembly algorithms on end-to-end performance in optical burst switched networks with different QoS classes,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Optical Burst Switching, San Jose, CA, USA, Oct. 2004.

R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols, Addison-Wesley, 1994.

S. Floyd, J. Mahdavi, M. Mathis, M. Podolsky, “An extension to the selective acknowledgement (SACK) option for TCP,” RFC 2883, IETF, July 2000.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General scheme of the interworking scenario between different access technologies and the OBS network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Assembly and disassembly functions at ingress and egress edge nodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized throughput for the Ethernet scenario as a function of T max , varying the number of clients, C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized congestion window evolution for the Ethernet scenario as a function of simulation time (s) for T max = 5 ms .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized throughput as a function of T max , varying the number of clients, C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized congestion window evolution for wireless scenario as a function of simulation time (s) for T max = 10 ms .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Congestion window behavior for three clients as a function of simulation time for T max = 1 ms , p = 10 3 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Congestion window behavior for three clients as a function of simulation time for T max = 50 ms , p = 10 3 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Congestion window behavior for three clients as a function of simulation time for T max = 300 ms , p = 10 3 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Send rate of each client with T max = 1 ms , 50 ms , and 300 ms , p = 10 3 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Send rate of each client for different burst sizes, B = 20 , 40, and 60 segments, with p = 10 3 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average throughput as a function of p with T max = 1 ms , 50 ms , and 300 ms .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Average TCP throughput (Mbit/s) vs. time (s) for T max = 2 .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Normalized throughput vs. T max for 5, 8, and 10 clients.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Normalized congestion window for T max = 2 ms vs. time (s).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Send rate of the TCP clients for different T max values.

Equations (1)

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F intra = B P min B P max .