Abstract

The effect of beat noise on optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems using a range of two-dimensional (2-D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping (TW) code families is presented. A derivation of a general formula for the error probability of the system is given. The properties of the 2-D codes--namely, the structure, length, and cross-correlation characteristics--are found to have a great influence on system performance. Improved performance can be obtained by use of real-time dynamic thresholding.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. R. Chen, "Optical code division multiple access: challenges and solutions," in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 1159-1168 (2003).
  2. J. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. Part I: Fundamentals principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
  3. E. Inaty, H. M. H. Shalaby, P. Fortier, and L. A. Rusch, "Multirate optical fast frequency hopping CDMA system using power control," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 166-177 (2002).
  4. P. J. Legg, M. Tur, and I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).
  5. G. J. Pendock and D. D. Sampson, "Increasing the transmission capacity of coherence multiplexed communication systems by using differential detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1504-1506 (1995).
  6. E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
  7. E. Smith, R. Blaikie, and D. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude coding optical CDMA using pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1176-1185 (1998).
  8. Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, and H. Ghafouri-shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg grating based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1274-1281 (2001).
  9. J.-F. Huang, C. Yang, and H.-P. Tseng, "Complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical CDMA coder/decoders structured over arrayed-waveguide grating routers," Opt. Commun. 229, 241-248 (2004).
  10. K. Kamakura and I. Sasase, "Reduction of optical beat interference in optical frequency hopping CDMA networks using coherent multiplexing," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC2001) (IEEE), pp. 695-700.
  11. G. J. Pendock and D. D. Sampson, "Capacity of coherence-multiplexed CDMA networks," Opt. Commun. 143, 109-117 (1997).
  12. T. Demeechai and A. B. Sharma, "Beat noise in a non-coherent optical CDMA system," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS 2002) (2002), pp. 899-902.
  13. L. Tančevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
  14. F. Yamamoto and T. Sugie, "Reduction of optical beat interference in passive optical networks using CDMA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1710-1712 (2000).
  15. J. Zhang, M. Yao, Q. Xu, H. Zhang, C. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Interferometric noise in optical time division multiplexing transmission system," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1329-1334 (2002).
  16. L. Tančevski and I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping∕time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2636-2647 (1996).
  17. L. Tančevski, "Incoherent optical code-division multiple access and metropolitan area networks," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1995).
  18. R. M. Yim, J. Bajcsy, and L. R. Chen, "A new family of 2-D wavelength-time codes optical CDMA with differential detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 165-167 (2003).
  19. W. C. Kwong, G. Yang, V. Baby, C. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutation for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. (to be published).
  20. J.-H. Wen, J.-Y. Lin, and C.-Y. Lin, "Modified prime hop codes for optical CDMA systems," IEE Proc. Commun. 150, 414-408 (2003).
  21. E. K. H. Ng and E. H. Saragent, "Optimum threshold detection in real-time scalable switch high-speed multiwavelength optical code division multiple access LANs," IEEE Trans. Comm. 50, 778-784 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).

IEE Proc. Commun. (1)

J.-H. Wen, J.-Y. Lin, and C.-Y. Lin, "Modified prime hop codes for optical CDMA systems," IEE Proc. Commun. 150, 414-408 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

L. Tančevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. (1)

R. M. Yim, J. Bajcsy, and L. R. Chen, "A new family of 2-D wavelength-time codes optical CDMA with differential detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 165-167 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Yamamoto and T. Sugie, "Reduction of optical beat interference in passive optical networks using CDMA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1710-1712 (2000).

G. J. Pendock and D. D. Sampson, "Increasing the transmission capacity of coherence multiplexed communication systems by using differential detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1504-1506 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Comm. (1)

E. K. H. Ng and E. H. Saragent, "Optimum threshold detection in real-time scalable switch high-speed multiwavelength optical code division multiple access LANs," IEEE Trans. Comm. 50, 778-784 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

W. C. Kwong, G. Yang, V. Baby, C. Brès, and P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutation for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. (to be published).

E. Smith, R. Blaikie, and D. Taylor, "Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude coding optical CDMA using pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1176-1185 (1998).

J. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. Part I: Fundamentals principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Z. Wei, H. M. H. Shalaby, and H. Ghafouri-shiraz, "Modified quadratic congruence codes for fiber Bragg grating based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1274-1281 (2001).

E. Inaty, H. M. H. Shalaby, P. Fortier, and L. A. Rusch, "Multirate optical fast frequency hopping CDMA system using power control," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 166-177 (2002).

J. Zhang, M. Yao, Q. Xu, H. Zhang, C. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Interferometric noise in optical time division multiplexing transmission system," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1329-1334 (2002).

P. J. Legg, M. Tur, and I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).

L. Tančevski and I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping∕time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2636-2647 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. J. Pendock and D. D. Sampson, "Capacity of coherence-multiplexed CDMA networks," Opt. Commun. 143, 109-117 (1997).

J.-F. Huang, C. Yang, and H.-P. Tseng, "Complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical CDMA coder/decoders structured over arrayed-waveguide grating routers," Opt. Commun. 229, 241-248 (2004).

Other (4)

K. Kamakura and I. Sasase, "Reduction of optical beat interference in optical frequency hopping CDMA networks using coherent multiplexing," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC2001) (IEEE), pp. 695-700.

T. Demeechai and A. B. Sharma, "Beat noise in a non-coherent optical CDMA system," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS 2002) (2002), pp. 899-902.

L. Tančevski, "Incoherent optical code-division multiple access and metropolitan area networks," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1995).

L. R. Chen, "Optical code division multiple access: challenges and solutions," in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, and G. W. Schin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4833, 1159-1168 (2003).

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