Abstract

Hybrid multiplexing and demultiplexing schemes with the capability to integrate microwave and millimeter-wave frequency radio-over-fiber signals in a wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) infrastructure are proposed. The proposed schemes exploit the benefits of a spectrally efficient wavelength-interleaving technique and enhance the performance of optical millimeter-wave signals without employing an additional device. The schemes are demonstrated experimentally with simultaneous transport of 1Gbits baseband, 2.5GHz microwave, and 37.5GHz millimeter-wave signals that have the potential to converge last-mile optical and wireless technologies, leading to an integrated dense WDM network in the access and metro domains.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.
  4. S. Dixit, “Hybrid optical-wireless networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThM1.
  5. Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.
  6. A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5 Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3194-3202 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bakaul, M.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cvijtic, M.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

Dixit, S.

S. Dixit, “Hybrid optical-wireless networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThM1.

Esman, R. D.

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geha, A.

A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.

Ikeda, K.

Kitayama, K.

Kuri, T.

Lim, C.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

Mahonen, P.

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mas, C.

A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.

Munoz, L.

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

Nirmalathas, A.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pronk, V.

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, T.

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, Z.

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snijders, W. A. M.

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, C.-J. L.

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Grinsven, P. A. M.

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, B.

A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.

Wang, T.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

Waterhouse, R.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, S.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

Wellen, J.

A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.

Williams, K. J.

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

C.-J. L. van Driel, P. A. M. van Grinsven, V. Pronk, and W. A. M. Snijders, “The (R)evoluition of access networks for the information superhighway,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(6), 104-112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Mahonen, T. Saarinen, Z. Shelby, and L. Munoz, “Wireless internet over LMDS: architecture and experimental implementation,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(5), 126-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, “Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Efficient multiplexing scheme for wavelength-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2718-2720 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Martinez, V. Polo, and J. Marti, “Simultaneous baseband and RF optical modulation scheme for feeding wireless and wireline heterogeneous access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2018-2024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (3)

A. Geha, C. Mas, B. Vermeulen, and J. Wellen, “HARMONICS, an IP based service network over hybrid fibre-access network supporting QoS,” in 10th International Conference on Telecommunications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 628-633.

S. Dixit, “Hybrid optical-wireless networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThM1.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. Weinstein, M. Cvijtic, and S. Nakamura, “Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper NThG1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic integrated optical–wireless network architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic depicting the optical spectra of the wavelength-interleaved multiband signals in an integrated WDM-PON with a DWDM channel spacing smaller than the mm-wave RF carrier frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed H-MUX enabling multiplexing of multiband wavelength-interleaved signals in an integrated WDM-PON, which also reduces the CSR of the multiplexed RF signals through optical loop-backs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Proposed H-DEMUX enabling demultiplexing of multiband wavelength-interleaved signals in an integrated WDM-PON, which also reduces the CSR of the multiplexed RF signals through optical loop-backs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for the demonstration of the proposed H-DEMUX.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characteristic properties of the AWG: (a) the transmission profile before tuning the center frequency to transported channels, and (b) frequency drifts versus temperature curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured optical spectra of the demultiplexed signals through the proposed H-DEMUX: (a) millimeter-wave (RF), (b) microwave (IF), and (c) baseband (BB).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured BER curves as a function of received optical power for (a) millimeter-wave (RF), (b) microwave (IF), and (c) baseband (BB) signals demultiplexed from the three wavelength-interleaved multiband signals after transmission over 10 km SMF with the back-to-back curves as the reference.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured BER curves, which quantify the effects of optical cross talk on the demultiplexed channels: (a) millimeter-wave (RF), (b) microwave (IF), and (c) baseband (BB) with BER curves of single-channel transmission as the reference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Input/Output Characteristic Matrix of a ( 4 N + 1 ) × ( 4 N + 1 ) AWG