Abstract

Passive optical networks (PONs) are being aggressively pursued as a means of delivering access network solutions. The cost benefits resulting from a reduction in the number of interfaces between nodes has enabled increasing deployment of a PON delivering fiber to the home and fiber to the curb. However, in many cases, the need for high split ratios or an extended-reach requires amplification to overcome additional losses. Erbium-doped amplifiers have a limited use in PONs since the operational wavelengths typically include backhaul at 1.3 μm. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) offer a cost-effective solution with a migration path toward integration; deployment options include its use as a preamplifier, booster, or midspan amplifier. We present a theoretical treatment that analyzes the amplified system operational requirements and justifies this analysis through the experiment. The analysis considers for the first time to our knowledge the dc offset that is introduced into the receiver as a result of the significant amplified spontaneous emission powers present in amplified PONs, where filter widths are typically 20 nm or greater.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. P. Davey and D. B. Payne., “The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks--an operator's view,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 53-56.
  2. J. R. Stern, “Optical wideband subscriber loops and local area networks in the UK,” in Proceedings of ICC, Amsterdam, May 14-17, 1984.
  3. L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.
  4. R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Suzkuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE-PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58 km reach,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 141-142.
  6. P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.
  7. A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).
  8. http://www.oplink.com/pdf/TRXAG1M_SM_MR.pdf.
  9. Application Note HFAN-2.2.0, “Extinction ratio and power penalty,” http://www.maximic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/596.
  10. G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  12. PTB3J88-5638 data sheet, http://www.neophotonics.com/index/index.php.
  13. A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. http:/www.kamelian.com/data/opa_15_ds.pdf.
  15. D. A. Francis, S. P. DiJaili, and J. D. Walker, “A single chip linear optical amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit (IEEE, 2001), paper PD13-1.
  16. W. C. Michie, A. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, and C. Tombling, “An adjustable gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA),” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

W. C. Michie, A. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, and C. Tombling, “An adjustable gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA),” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

Al-Mansoori, M. H.

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Andonovic, I.

W. C. Michie, A. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, and C. Tombling, “An adjustable gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA),” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, I.

W. C. Michie, A. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, and C. Tombling, “An adjustable gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA),” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).

Davey, R. P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Davey and D. B. Payne., “The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks--an operator's view,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 53-56.

Dentai, A. G.

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).

DiJaili, S. P.

D. A. Francis, S. P. DiJaili, and J. D. Walker, “A single chip linear optical amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit (IEEE, 2001), paper PD13-1.

Ford, C.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Francis, D. A.

D. A. Francis, S. P. DiJaili, and J. D. Walker, “A single chip linear optical amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit (IEEE, 2001), paper PD13-1.

Healey, P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Hope, I.

Iannone, P.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

Johnston, L.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Kelly, A.

Kelly, A. E.

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).

Lealman, I.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Lee, H.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

Mahamd Adikan, F. R.

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Mahdi, M. A.

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Marmur, O.

McGeough, J.

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michie, C.

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

Moore, R.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Naji, A. W.

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Nakagawa, J.

N. Suzkuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE-PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58 km reach,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 141-142.

Payne, D. B.

Payne., D. B.

R. P. Davey and D. B. Payne., “The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks--an operator's view,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 53-56.

Perrin, S.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Piehler, D.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

Reichmann, K.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

Rivers, L.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Ruhmann, J.

Spiekman, L.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

Stern, J. R.

J. R. Stern, “Optical wideband subscriber loops and local area networks in the UK,” in Proceedings of ICC, Amsterdam, May 14-17, 1984.

Suzkuki, N.

N. Suzkuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE-PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58 km reach,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 141-142.

Thomsen, B. C.

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tombling, C.

W. C. Michie, A. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, and C. Tombling, “An adjustable gain clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA),” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Townley, P.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Townsend, P.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

Walker, J. D.

D. A. Francis, S. P. DiJaili, and J. D. Walker, “A single chip linear optical amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit (IEEE, 2001), paper PD13-1.

Watkinson, P.

Zainal Abidin, M. S.

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Zuiderveld, Y.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. E. Kelly, C. Michie, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, J. McGeough, and B. C. Thomsen, “High performance semiconductor optical amplifier modules at 1300 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2674-2677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, “Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 842-845 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. W. Naji, M. S. Zainal Abidin, M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Optimisation of remotely-pumped Er3+-doped fibre amplifier location in repeaterless transmission systems,” Opt. Commun. 272, 205-210 (2007).

Other (11)

http://www.oplink.com/pdf/TRXAG1M_SM_MR.pdf.

Application Note HFAN-2.2.0, “Extinction ratio and power penalty,” http://www.maximic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/596.

N. Suzkuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE-PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58 km reach,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 141-142.

P. Townsend, P. Healey, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Reflective SOAs for spectrally sliced WDM-PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, A. Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 352-353.

http:/www.kamelian.com/data/opa_15_ds.pdf.

D. A. Francis, S. P. DiJaili, and J. D. Walker, “A single chip linear optical amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibit (IEEE, 2001), paper PD13-1.

R. P. Davey and D. B. Payne., “The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks--an operator's view,” in 31st European Conference on Optical Communication(IEEE, 2005), pp. 53-56.

J. R. Stern, “Optical wideband subscriber loops and local area networks in the UK,” in Proceedings of ICC, Amsterdam, May 14-17, 1984.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, and H. Lee, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx,” in 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 48-50.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

PTB3J88-5638 data sheet, http://www.neophotonics.com/index/index.php.

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