Abstract

This work proposes a two-fiber self-healing ring-based local access passive optical network (PON) architecture that addresses some of the limitations of current tree-based PON architectures including supporting private networking capability as well as providing simple and cost-effective fully distributed resilience capabilities against most kinds of networking failures. Specifically, this work proposes and devises a simple self-healing Ethernet PON architecture that supports a truly shared LAN capability among end users. The main characteristic of the proposed architecture is that it supports a fully distributed control plane among the optical network units (ONUs) for ONU-to-ONU communication. The control plane supports fully distributed fault detection and recovery mechanisms as well as a decentralized dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme in which the optical line terminator is excluded from both the bandwidth arbitration and fault detection and recovery processes. The proposed decentralized automatic protection switching technique is capable of protecting against both node (ONU) and fiber failures (distribution and trunk) through active participation of ONUs. This scheme enables the recovery of all network traffic including upstream, downstream, and LAN data. In addition, the proposed protection technique can protect against any combination of concurrent double failures including trunk and distribution fiber breaks and node failures.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Sala and A. Gummalla, “PON functional requirements: services and performance,” Presented IEEE 802.3ah Meeting, Portland, Oreg., July 10-12, 2001.
  2. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).
  4. C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. IEEE 802.3ah EFM Group, http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/index.html.
  6. ITU-T recommendation G.983.1, “Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON),” (ITU, 1998).
  7. N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.
  9. W.-P. Lin, M.-S. Kao, and S. Chi, “The modified star-ring architecture for high-capacity subcarrier multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 32-39 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W.-P. Lin, M.-S. Kao, and S. Chi, “A DWDM/SCM self-healing architecture for broad-band subscriber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 319-328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.
  12. C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Wong and C.-J. Chae, “CSMA/CD-based EPON with optical internetworking capability among users,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2195-2197 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, “Optical layer survivability: a post-bubble perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(9), 51-53 (2003).
  16. T.-H. Wu, “Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(2), 62-74 (1995).
  17. ASM Delowar Hossain, R. Dorsinville, A. Shami, C. Assi, and M. A. Ali, “Ring-based local access PON architecture for supporting private networking capability,” J. Opt. Netw. 5, 26-39 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. dBm Optics, http://www.dbmoptics.com/products/gpoti/switches.php.
  19. N. Suzuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58km reach,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2005), pp. 141-142.
  20. D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.
  21. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Wong and C.-J. Chae, “CSMA/CD-based EPON with optical internetworking capability among users,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2195-2197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W.-P. Lin, M.-S. Kao, and S. Chi, “A DWDM/SCM self-healing architecture for broad-band subscriber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 319-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, “Optical layer survivability: a post-bubble perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(9), 51-53 (2003).

2002 (2)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

W.-P. Lin, M.-S. Kao, and S. Chi, “The modified star-ring architecture for high-capacity subcarrier multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 32-39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T.-H. Wu, “Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(2), 62-74 (1995).

Abdullah, M. K.

M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.

Ali, M.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

Assi, C.

ASM Delowar Hossain, R. Dorsinville, A. Shami, C. Assi, and M. A. Ali, “Ring-based local access PON architecture for supporting private networking capability,” J. Opt. Netw. 5, 26-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Attygalle, M.

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, H.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Chae, C.-J.

E. Wong and C.-J. Chae, “CSMA/CD-based EPON with optical internetworking capability among users,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2195-2197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

Choi, J. Y.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Davey, R.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.

Dixit, S.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

Dorsinville, R.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, “Optical layer survivability: a post-bubble perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(9), 51-53 (2003).

Gilfedder, T.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.

Gummalla, A.

D. Sala and A. Gummalla, “PON functional requirements: services and performance,” Presented IEEE 802.3ah Meeting, Portland, Oreg., July 10-12, 2001.

Hirth, R.

Hossain, ASM Delowar

Kang, M.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Kao, M.-S.

Kim, G.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Kim, G.-Y.

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

Lau, P. W.

M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.

Lee, O.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Lee, S.-T.

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.-P.

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

Nadarajah, N.

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, J.

N. Suzuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58km reach,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2005), pp. 141-142.

Nesset, D.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.

Nirmalathas, A.

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Payne, D. B.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

P'ng, W. T.

M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.

Ramaswami, R.

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, “Optical layer survivability: a post-bubble perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(9), 51-53 (2003).

Ryou, J.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

Sala, D.

D. Sala and A. Gummalla, “PON functional requirements: services and performance,” Presented IEEE 802.3ah Meeting, Portland, Oreg., July 10-12, 2001.

Shami, A.

Suzuki, N.

N. Suzuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58km reach,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2005), pp. 141-142.

Tee, E. R.

M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.

Wong, E.

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, E. Wong, and A. Nirmalathas, “Novel schemes for local area network emulation in passive optical networks with RF subcarrier multiplexed customer traffic,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2974-2983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Wong and C.-J. Chae, “CSMA/CD-based EPON with optical internetworking capability among users,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2195-2197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.-H.

T.-H. Wu, “Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(2), 62-74 (1995).

Ye, Y.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, Y. Ye, and R. Hirth, “Supporting differentiated classes of service in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 280-298 (2002).

Yoo, J.

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel and R. Ramaswami, “Optical layer survivability: a post-bubble perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(9), 51-53 (2003).

T.-H. Wu, “Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(2), 62-74 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, and M. Ali, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PONs,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C.-J. Chae, S.-T. Lee, G.-Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1686-1688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Wong and C.-J. Chae, “CSMA/CD-based EPON with optical internetworking capability among users,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2195-2197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Nadarajah, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Wong, “A novel local area network emulation technique on passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1121-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON: design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun. 3, 307-319 (2001).

Other (8)

IEEE 802.3ah EFM Group, http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/index.html.

ITU-T recommendation G.983.1, “Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON),” (ITU, 1998).

Y. Kim, J. Y. Choi, J. Ryou, H. Baek, O. Lee, H. Park, M. Kang, G. Kim, and J. Yoo, “Cost effective protection architecture to provide diverse protection demands in Ethernet passive optical network,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE2003), pp. 721-724.

M. K. Abdullah, W. T. P'ng, P. W. Lau, and E. R. Tee, “FTTH access network protection using a switch,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC, 2003), pp. 1219-1222.

dBm Optics, http://www.dbmoptics.com/products/gpoti/switches.php.

N. Suzuki and J. Nakagawa, “First demonstration of full burst optical amplified GE PON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU splits and 58km reach,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2005), pp. 141-142.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2006), paper Mo4.5.1.

D. Sala and A. Gummalla, “PON functional requirements: services and performance,” Presented IEEE 802.3ah Meeting, Portland, Oreg., July 10-12, 2001.

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