Abstract

The restorability problem in wavelength-routed networks without wavelength converters is investigated. A distributed control plane based on the generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) suite is considered for disseminating link-state information and reserving network resources. Different routing and wavelength selection strategies are proposed and a detailed performance analysis is carried out during restoration. Simulation results evaluate the blocking probability due to both lack of available resources (i.e., forward blocking) and resource contentions (i.e., backward blocking). Performance comparison provides some insightful suggestions to be applied to GMPLS-controlled wavelength-routed networks without wavelength converters. First, it is recommended to perform routing and wavelength selection separately at the lightpath source and destination, respectively. Second, routing can be computed on link-state information advertised during provisioning, without the need of flooding link-state information during restoration. In fact, during restoration, the resource contention among concurrent signaling instances is the dominant cause of blocking (i.e., backward blocking overcomes forward blocking). For this reason, intelligent routing and wavelength selection strategies aiming at avoiding or limiting resource contentions can help to improve restorability. In particular, among those strategies, the proposed wavelength selection has a better ability to reduce resource contentions than the routing strategies.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks (Springer, 2006).
  2. W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice-Hall, 2005).
  3. E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2004).
  4. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) recovery functional specification,” IETF RFC 4426 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).
  5. A. Farrel, J. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).
  6. R. Shenai and K. Sivalingam, “Hybrid survivability approaches for optical WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3046-3055 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. V. Kaigala and W. D. Grover, “On the efficacy of GMPLS auto-reprovisioning as a mesh-network restoration mechanism,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3797-3801.
  8. S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 870-883 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Liu and L. Ruan, “Reducing restoration blocking in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (2005), pp. 323-330.
  10. J. Zheng, B. Zhang, and H. T. Mouftah, “Dynamic path restoration based on multi-initiation for GMPLS-based WDM networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1639-1643.
  11. N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).
  12. A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  13. L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).
  14. D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).
  15. K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).
  16. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS),” IETF RFC 4202 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2005).
  17. D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).
  18. J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).
  19. J. W. Suurballe, “Disjoint paths in a network,” Networks 4, 125-145 (1984).
  20. R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).
  21. A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.
  22. M. Ghizzi, “Assessment of selected features of GMPLS and MTIT protocols for traffic engineering in core and metro segments of the Internet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2006).
  23. S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “Benefits of advertising wavelength availability in distributed lightpath establishment,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1782-1786.
  24. S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1112-1120 (2006).
  25. T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, and A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proceedings of Conference on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (2003), pp. 122-130.
  26. A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.
  27. L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

2007 (1)

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

R. Shenai and K. Sivalingam, “Hybrid survivability approaches for optical WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3046-3055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).

2003 (1)

1984 (2)

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

J. W. Suurballe, “Disjoint paths in a network,” Networks 4, 125-145 (1984).

Agrawal, P.

L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

Ali, M.

A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.

Andriolli, N.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, J. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

Assi, C.

A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.

Awduche, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Berger, L.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).

Castoldi, P.

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Cerutti, I.

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Cheng, T. H.

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1112-1120 (2006).

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “Benefits of advertising wavelength availability in distributed lightpath establishment,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1782-1786.

Chlamtac, I.

K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).

Farrel, A.

A. Farrel, J. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

Fook, V.

L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

Gan, D.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Ghizzi, M.

M. Ghizzi, “Assessment of selected features of GMPLS and MTIT protocols for traffic engineering in core and metro segments of the Internet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2006).

Giorgetti, A.

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Grover, W. D.

G. V. Kaigala and W. D. Grover, “On the efficacy of GMPLS auto-reprovisioning as a mesh-network restoration mechanism,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3797-3801.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice-Hall, 2005).

Habib, I.

A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.

Inglima, S.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, and A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proceedings of Conference on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (2003), pp. 122-130.

Kaigala, G. V.

G. V. Kaigala and W. D. Grover, “On the efficacy of GMPLS auto-reprovisioning as a mesh-network restoration mechanism,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3797-3801.

Katz, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

Kompella, K.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS),” IETF RFC 4202 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2005).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) recovery functional specification,” IETF RFC 4426 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

Li, T.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu and L. Ruan, “Reducing restoration blocking in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (2005), pp. 323-330.

Lu, K.

K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2004).

McGuire, A.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, and A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proceedings of Conference on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (2003), pp. 122-130.

Mouftah, H. T.

J. Zheng, B. Zhang, and H. T. Mouftah, “Dynamic path restoration based on multi-initiation for GMPLS-based WDM networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1639-1643.

Mukherjee, B.

Okamawari, T.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, and A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proceedings of Conference on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (2003), pp. 122-130.

Ramamurthy, S.

Rekhter, Y.

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) recovery functional specification,” IETF RFC 4426 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS),” IETF RFC 4202 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2005).

Ruan, L.

Z. Liu and L. Ruan, “Reducing restoration blocking in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (2005), pp. 323-330.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

Sambo, N.

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Label preference schemes for lightpath provisioning and restoration in distributed GMPLS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Saradhi, C.

L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

Shami, A.

A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.

Shen, S.

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1112-1120 (2006).

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “Benefits of advertising wavelength availability in distributed lightpath establishment,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1782-1786.

Shenai, R.

Sivalingam, K.

Srinivasan, V.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Suurballe, J. W.

J. W. Suurballe, “Disjoint paths in a network,” Networks 4, 125-145 (1984).

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

Swallow, G.

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Tarjan, R. E.

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

Valcarenghi, L.

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.

Vasseur, J.

A. Farrel, J. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

Xiao, G.

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “A novel method of link-state update in wavelength-routed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1112-1120 (2006).

K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “Benefits of advertising wavelength availability in distributed lightpath establishment,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1782-1786.

Yeung, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

Zhang, B.

J. Zheng, B. Zhang, and H. T. Mouftah, “Dynamic path restoration based on multi-initiation for GMPLS-based WDM networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1639-1643.

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, B. Zhang, and H. T. Mouftah, “Dynamic path restoration based on multi-initiation for GMPLS-based WDM networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1639-1643.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

N. Sambo, A. Giorgetti, I. Cerutti, and P. Castoldi, “A contention detection scheme for lightpath restoration in GMPLS networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2007).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

K. Lu, G. Xiao, and I. Chlamtac, “Analysis of blocking probability for distributed lightpath establishment in WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13, 187-197 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Networks (2)

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

J. W. Suurballe, “Disjoint paths in a network,” Networks 4, 125-145 (1984).

Other (19)

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).

A. Giorgetti, N. Sambo, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Reservation collision avoidance in GMPLS wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (PS) (2006), pp. 1-3.

M. Ghizzi, “Assessment of selected features of GMPLS and MTIT protocols for traffic engineering in core and metro segments of the Internet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2006).

S. Shen, G. Xiao, and T. H. Cheng, “Benefits of advertising wavelength availability in distributed lightpath establishment,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1782-1786.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks (Springer, 2006).

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice-Hall, 2005).

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC 3945 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2004).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) recovery functional specification,” IETF RFC 4426 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

A. Farrel, J. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” IETF RFC 4655 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2006).

G. V. Kaigala and W. D. Grover, “On the efficacy of GMPLS auto-reprovisioning as a mesh-network restoration mechanism,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3797-3801.

T. Okamawari, S. Inglima, and A. McGuire, “Performance of traffic engineering methods in response to rapid changes of network state,” in Proceedings of Conference on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (2003), pp. 122-130.

A. Shami, C. Assi, I. Habib, and M. Ali, “Performance evaluation of two GMPLS-based distributed control and management protocols for dynamic lightpath provisioning in future IP networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2289-2293.

L. Zhou, P. Agrawal, C. Saradhi, and V. Fook, “Effect of routing convergence time on lightpath establishment in GMPLS-controlled WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1692-1696.

L. Berger, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” IETF RFC 3473 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, “Traffic engineering (TE) extensions to OSPF version 2,” IETF RFC 3630 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2003).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, “Routing extensions in support of generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS),” IETF RFC 4202 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2005).

D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, and G. Swallow, “RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP tunnels,” IETF RFC 3209 (Internet Engineering Task Force, 2001).

Z. Liu and L. Ruan, “Reducing restoration blocking in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (2005), pp. 323-330.

J. Zheng, B. Zhang, and H. T. Mouftah, “Dynamic path restoration based on multi-initiation for GMPLS-based WDM networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1639-1643.

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