Abstract

Taking all-optical packet-switched cross-connect architectures that are highly scalable as a starting point, we investigate how much buffering is required in optical packet routers. In particular, we investigate how the buffering depth scales with the number of ports of the router and how the packet loss and throughput depend on the network load. We treat the buffer as a queuing system with finite storage with a Markovian time evolution. This leads to an analytical expression for the buffer depth. Our results can act as a guideline for designing all-optical packet buffers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Tucker, “The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  2. See http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps5763/.
  3. See datasheet “Sierra Monolitcs SMI4026/4036 OC-768 Mux/demux chipset” available at http://monolithics.com/wb/pages/products/optical-communication.php.
  4. See datasheet “Vitesse VSC8021/VSC8022 OC-48 8 bit2.5 Gb/s Mux/demux chipset” available at http://doc.chipfind.ru/vitesse/vsc8021.htm.
  5. See datasheet “CTI communication techniques CR-9000/CR9500 clock recovery modules” available at http://www.omecon.de/cd/pdf/cti/cti_datenblatt_35_38.pdf.
  6. M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.
  9. J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).
  10. N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.
  11. L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems: Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).
  12. See annual reports for the Amsterdam Internet Exchange available at http://www.ams-ix.net/about/.
  13. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

2008

2007

2006

2004

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appenzeller, G.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Baets, R.

Binsma, H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calabretta, N.

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Dorren, H.

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Dorren, H. J. S.

J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Herrera, J.

J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Hill, M. T.

J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.-D.

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Keslassy, I.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Khoe, G. D.

J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleinrock, L.

L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems: Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).

Koonen, A. M. J.

Koonen, T.

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Lagahe, C.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Marti, J.

Maxwell, G. D.

McKeown, N.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Mulvad, H. C.

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A.

Ramos, F.

Raz, O.

Regreny, P.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Seassal, C.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tangdiongga, E.

J. Herrera, O. Raz, E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. C. Mulvad, F. Ramos, J. Marti, G. D. Maxwell, A. Poustie, M. T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. J. S. Dorren, “160-Gb/s all-optical packet switching over a 110-km field installed optical fiber link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 176-182 (2008).

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

Tucker, R. S.

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, T. de Vries, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, H. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “A fast low power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

N. Calabretta, H.-D. Jung, J. Herrera, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, and H. Dorren, “1×4 all-optical packet switch at 160 Gb/s employing optical processing of scalable in-band address labels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP33.

L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems: Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).

See annual reports for the Amsterdam Internet Exchange available at http://www.ams-ix.net/about/.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

See http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps5763/.

See datasheet “Sierra Monolitcs SMI4026/4036 OC-768 Mux/demux chipset” available at http://monolithics.com/wb/pages/products/optical-communication.php.

See datasheet “Vitesse VSC8021/VSC8022 OC-48 8 bit2.5 Gb/s Mux/demux chipset” available at http://doc.chipfind.ru/vitesse/vsc8021.htm.

See datasheet “CTI communication techniques CR-9000/CR9500 clock recovery modules” available at http://www.omecon.de/cd/pdf/cti/cti_datenblatt_35_38.pdf.

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