Abstract

An optical routing network for applications requiring large numbers of nodes and low latency, such as the interconnection network inside a future high-end supercomputer, is described. The network is a development of an existing architecture based on a combination of clockwork routing and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM-CR). Although using the same underlying photonic technologies as WDM-CR, the new architecture has several advantages, including the following: the network can be scaled to greater numbers of nodes; routing between closely located nodes is more direct, resulting in lower latency and higher overall throughput; arbitration and control mechanisms are simplified; and the need for optical amplification is removed. Results obtained from full discrete-event traffic simulations demonstrate scalability to interconnection networks as large as 4096 nodes in a flat architecture.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds., Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing (National Academies Press, 2004).
  2. D. Dai and D. K. Panda, “How much does network contention affect distributed shared memory performance?” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 1997), pp. 454-461.
  3. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, G. D. Hughes, and F. G. Johnson, “WDM packet routing for high-capacity data networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Shacham and K. Bergman, “Optimizing the performance of a data vortex interconnection network,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 369-374 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Hemenway, R. Grzybowski, C. Minkenberg, and R. Luijten, “Optical packet-switched interconnect for supercomputer applications,” J. Opt. Netw. 3, 900-913 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.
  7. E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Optical packet-switched interconnect based on wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork routing,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 840-853 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “A new packet routing strategy for ultra-fast photonic networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2321-2326.
  9. F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “Routing and fairness issues associated with a self routing control strategy in regular mesh photonic networks,” in Teletraffic Engineering in a Competitive World: Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress, P.Key and D.Smith, eds. (Elsevier, 1999), pp. 1301-1310.
  10. F. Chevalier, “Performance evaluation of the clockwork routing scheme in optical packet switching networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Strathclyde, UK, 2000).
  11. E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Low-latency optical network based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” Photonic Network Commun. 14, 83-88 (2007).
  12. E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Traffic analysis of optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2007), paper ONS8.2.
  13. T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Bravi, A. D. Ellis, A. K. Mishra, and D. Cotter, “Optical packet transmission in 42.6 Gbit/s wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork-routed networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 266-276 (2008).
  15. N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Bravi, “Wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing for scalable interconnection networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University College Cork, Ireland, 2008).
  17. M. Galetzka, D. Roder, and A. Finger, “Simulation of user-perceived QoS in hybrid broadcast and telecommunication networks,” in International Conference on Networking and Services (IEEE, 2006), pp. 44-49.
  18. M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 8, 3-30 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

2008

2007

2006

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

2004

2001

1999

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 8, 3-30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abel, F.

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Adiga, N. R.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Anantharam, V.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Blumrich, M. A.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Bravi, E.

E. Bravi, A. D. Ellis, A. K. Mishra, and D. Cotter, “Optical packet transmission in 42.6 Gbit/s wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork-routed networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 266-276 (2008).

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Optical packet-switched interconnect based on wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork routing,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 840-853 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Low-latency optical network based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” Photonic Network Commun. 14, 83-88 (2007).

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Traffic analysis of optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2007), paper ONS8.2.

E. Bravi, “Wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing for scalable interconnection networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University College Cork, Ireland, 2008).

Chen, D.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Chevalier, F.

F. Chevalier, “Performance evaluation of the clockwork routing scheme in optical packet switching networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Strathclyde, UK, 2000).

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “Routing and fairness issues associated with a self routing control strategy in regular mesh photonic networks,” in Teletraffic Engineering in a Competitive World: Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress, P.Key and D.Smith, eds. (Elsevier, 1999), pp. 1301-1310.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “A new packet routing strategy for ultra-fast photonic networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2321-2326.

Chiu, G. L.-T.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Coteus, P.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Cotter, D.

E. Bravi, A. D. Ellis, A. K. Mishra, and D. Cotter, “Optical packet transmission in 42.6 Gbit/s wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork-routed networks,” J. Opt. Netw. 7, 266-276 (2008).

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Optical packet-switched interconnect based on wavelength-division-multiplexed clockwork routing,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 840-853 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Low-latency optical network based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” Photonic Network Commun. 14, 83-88 (2007).

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “Routing and fairness issues associated with a self routing control strategy in regular mesh photonic networks,” in Teletraffic Engineering in a Competitive World: Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress, P.Key and D.Smith, eds. (Elsevier, 1999), pp. 1301-1310.

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Traffic analysis of optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2007), paper ONS8.2.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “A new packet routing strategy for ultra-fast photonic networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2321-2326.

Dai, D.

D. Dai and D. K. Panda, “How much does network contention affect distributed shared memory performance?” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 1997), pp. 454-461.

Ellis, A. D.

Finger, A.

M. Galetzka, D. Roder, and A. Finger, “Simulation of user-perceived QoS in hybrid broadcast and telecommunication networks,” in International Conference on Networking and Services (IEEE, 2006), pp. 44-49.

Galetzka, M.

M. Galetzka, D. Roder, and A. Finger, “Simulation of user-perceived QoS in hybrid broadcast and telecommunication networks,” in International Conference on Networking and Services (IEEE, 2006), pp. 44-49.

Gara, A.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Giampapa, M. E.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Glick, M.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S. L.

S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds., Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing (National Academies Press, 2004).

Grzybowski, R.

Gusat, M.

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Harle, D.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “A new packet routing strategy for ultra-fast photonic networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2321-2326.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “Routing and fairness issues associated with a self routing control strategy in regular mesh photonic networks,” in Teletraffic Engineering in a Competitive World: Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress, P.Key and D.Smith, eds. (Elsevier, 1999), pp. 1301-1310.

Heidelberger, P.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Hemenway, B. R.

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Hemenway, R.

Hughes, G. D.

Johnson, F. G.

Krishnamurthy, R.

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Lin, T.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luijten, R.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 8, 3-30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McAuley, D.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mekkittikul, A.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minkenberg, C.

R. Hemenway, R. Grzybowski, C. Minkenberg, and R. Luijten, “Optical packet-switched interconnect for supercomputer applications,” J. Opt. Netw. 3, 900-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Mishra, A. K.

Muller, P.

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

Nishimura, T.

M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 8, 3-30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Panda, D. K.

D. Dai and D. K. Panda, “How much does network contention affect distributed shared memory performance?” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 1997), pp. 454-461.

Patterson, C. A.

S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds., Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing (National Academies Press, 2004).

Penty, R. V.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roder, D.

M. Galetzka, D. Roder, and A. Finger, “Simulation of user-perceived QoS in hybrid broadcast and telecommunication networks,” in International Conference on Networking and Services (IEEE, 2006), pp. 44-49.

Shacham, A.

Singh, S.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Snir, M.

S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds., Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing (National Academies Press, 2004).

Steinmacher-Burow, B. D.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Takken, T.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Tsao, M.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Vranas, P.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

Walrand, J.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. A.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul.

M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul. 8, 3-30 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

N. R. Adiga, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, A. Gara, M. E. Giampapa, P. Heidelberger, S. Singh, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, M. Tsao, and P. Vranas, “Blue Gene/L torus interconnection network,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 265-276 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, and D. McAuley, “Performance and scalability of a single-stage SOA switch for 10×10 Gb/s wavelength striped packet routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 691-693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

N. McKeown, A. Mekkittikul, V. Anantharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input queued switch,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1260-1267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Photonic Network Commun.

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Low-latency optical network based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” Photonic Network Commun. 14, 83-88 (2007).

Other

E. Bravi and D. Cotter, “Traffic analysis of optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2007), paper ONS8.2.

S. L. Graham, M. Snir, and C. A. Patterson, eds., Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing (National Academies Press, 2004).

D. Dai and D. K. Panda, “How much does network contention affect distributed shared memory performance?” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 1997), pp. 454-461.

E. Bravi, “Wavelength division multiplexed clockwork routing for scalable interconnection networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University College Cork, Ireland, 2008).

M. Galetzka, D. Roder, and A. Finger, “Simulation of user-perceived QoS in hybrid broadcast and telecommunication networks,” in International Conference on Networking and Services (IEEE, 2006), pp. 44-49.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “A new packet routing strategy for ultra-fast photonic networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 2321-2326.

F. Chevalier, D. Cotter, and D. Harle, “Routing and fairness issues associated with a self routing control strategy in regular mesh photonic networks,” in Teletraffic Engineering in a Competitive World: Proceedings of the International Teletraffic Congress, P.Key and D.Smith, eds. (Elsevier, 1999), pp. 1301-1310.

F. Chevalier, “Performance evaluation of the clockwork routing scheme in optical packet switching networks,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Strathclyde, UK, 2000).

C. Minkenberg, F. Abel, P. Muller, R. Krishnamurthy, M. Gusat, and B. R. Hemenway, “Control path implementation for a low-latency optical HPC switch,” in 13th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2005), pp. 29-35.

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