Abstract

We consider multigranular optical networks using waveband switching (WBS) technology. The use of advanced WDM has significantly increased the available bandwidth in backbone networks by increasing the number of wavelengths. As the number of wavelengths in a fiber is increased, the number of ports or the size of the optical cross connects increases rapidly. Using WBS, wavelengths are grouped into bands and switched as a single entity thus reducing the cost and control complexity of switching nodes by minimizing the port count. Part I of our study [J. Opt. Netw. 5, 1043–1055 (2006) ] compared the various cross-connect architectures for WBS including the three-layer and single-layer multigranular cross connects. It also discussed various issues relating to waveband switching networks that are different from traditional wavelength routing networks (WRNs), for example, traffic grooming, and it showed why techniques developed for WRNs cannot be simply applied to WBS networks. We study the effect of wavelength and waveband conversion on the performance of WBS networks with reconfigurable multigranular optical cross connects. We present an algorithm for waveband grouping in wavelength convertible networks and evaluate its performance with full, limited, and intraband wavelength conversion. We then focus on survivability in WBS networks and show how waveband and wavelength conversion can be used effectively to recover from failures in WBS networks.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).
  2. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''A framework for waveband switching in multi-granular optical networks: Part I--multi-granular cross-connect architectures,'' J. Opt. Netw. 5, 1043-1055 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and W. Wang, ''Making use of a two stage multiplexing scheme in a WDM network,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2000), Paper ThD1.
  4. L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, ''Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2001), Paper TuG3.
  5. M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.-H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, ''Routing and wavelength assignment with multi-granularity traffic in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1292-1303 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, ''A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multigranular optical cross-connects,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, ''A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,'' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).
  9. R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. B. Yoo, ''Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. H. Harai and M. Murata, ''Performance of all-optical networks with limited-range wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'97) (IEEE, 1997), pp. 416-421.
  12. E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, ''Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186-196 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. E. J. Yates, J. Lacey, and M. Summerfield, ''Limited-range wavelength translation in all-optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'96 (1996), pp. 954-961.
  15. T. Wu, ''Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 33, 58-74 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I--protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'99, New York, USA (1999), pp. 21-25.
  17. S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II: restoration,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'99) (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 3, pp. 2023-2030.
  18. L. Noirie, F. Dorgeuille, and A. Bisson, ''32×10 Gbit/s DWDM metropolitan network demonstration with 10 waveband--ADMs and 155 km teralight metro fiber,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThH4.
  19. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Waveband switching in optical networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 105-112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Optimal waveband switching in WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04) (IEEE, 2004).
  21. M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Survivable waveband switching in WDM mesh networks under dedicated-path protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'05 (2005).
  22. S. Varma and J. Jue, ''Protection in multi-granular waveband networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'04 (2004), pp. 1759-1763.
  23. L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Uniform versus non-uniform band switching in WDM networks,'' Comput. Netw. 50, 149-167 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.
  25. G. Huiban, S. Perennes, and M. Syska, ''Traffic grooming in WDM networks with multi-layer switches,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'02) (IEEE, 2002).
  26. R. Lingampalli and P. Vengalam, ''Effect of wavelength and waveband grooming on all-optical networks with single layer photonic switching,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThP4.
  27. H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, ''All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper WH2.
  28. C. Politi, D. Klonidis, and M. J. O'Mahony, ''Waveband converters based on four-wave mixing in SOAs,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1203-1217 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, ''Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks,'' in High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 317-322.
  30. R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.
  31. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).
  32. M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,'' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, ''Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197-206 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,'' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Survivable waveband switching in WDM mesh networks under dedicated-path protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'05 (2005).

2004 (3)

S. Varma and J. Jue, ''Protection in multi-granular waveband networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'04 (2004), pp. 1759-1763.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Optimal waveband switching in WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04) (IEEE, 2004).

2003 (4)

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, ''Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks,'' in High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 317-322.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Waveband switching in optical networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 105-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, ''A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multigranular optical cross-connects,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

L. Noirie, F. Dorgeuille, and A. Bisson, ''32×10 Gbit/s DWDM metropolitan network demonstration with 10 waveband--ADMs and 155 km teralight metro fiber,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThH4.

G. Huiban, S. Perennes, and M. Syska, ''Traffic grooming in WDM networks with multi-layer switches,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'02) (IEEE, 2002).

R. Lingampalli and P. Vengalam, ''Effect of wavelength and waveband grooming on all-optical networks with single layer photonic switching,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThP4.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, ''All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper WH2.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Ho and H. T. Mouftah, ''Routing and wavelength assignment with multi-granularity traffic in optical networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1292-1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, ''Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2001), Paper TuG3.

2000 (2)

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and W. Wang, ''Making use of a two stage multiplexing scheme in a WDM network,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2000), Paper ThD1.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, ''A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,'' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

1999 (3)

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I--protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'99, New York, USA (1999), pp. 21-25.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II: restoration,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'99) (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 3, pp. 2023-2030.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.

1998 (3)

E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, ''Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186-196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, ''Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

H. M. H. Harai and M. Murata, ''Performance of all-optical networks with limited-range wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'97) (IEEE, 1997), pp. 416-421.

1996 (2)

S. J. B. Yoo, ''Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. E. J. Yates, J. Lacey, and M. Summerfield, ''Limited-range wavelength translation in all-optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'96 (1996), pp. 954-961.

1995 (2)

T. Wu, ''Emerging technologies for fiber network survivability,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 33, 58-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''A framework for waveband switching in multi-granular optical networks: Part I--multi-granular cross-connect architectures,'' J. Opt. Netw. 5, 1043-1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Waveband switching in optical networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 105-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, ''A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multigranular optical cross-connects,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ayanoglu, E.

E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, ''Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186-196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, ''Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, A.

L. Noirie, F. Dorgeuille, and A. Bisson, ''32×10 Gbit/s DWDM metropolitan network demonstration with 10 waveband--ADMs and 155 km teralight metro fiber,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThH4.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''A framework for waveband switching in multi-granular optical networks: Part I--multi-granular cross-connect architectures,'' J. Opt. Netw. 5, 1043-1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Waveband switching in optical networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 105-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, ''A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multigranular optical cross-connects,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Uniform versus non-uniform band switching in WDM networks,'' Comput. Netw. 50, 149-167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Optimal waveband switching in WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04) (IEEE, 2004).

Dorgeuille, F.

L. Noirie, F. Dorgeuille, and A. Bisson, ''32×10 Gbit/s DWDM metropolitan network demonstration with 10 waveband--ADMs and 155 km teralight metro fiber,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThH4.

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, ''Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2001), Paper TuG3.

Escobar, H. E.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, ''All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper WH2.

Ganguly, S.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, ''Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks,'' in High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 317-322.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and W. Wang, ''Making use of a two stage multiplexing scheme in a WDM network,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2000), Paper ThD1.

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.

Harai, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Harai and M. Murata, ''Performance of all-optical networks with limited-range wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'97) (IEEE, 1997), pp. 416-421.

Ho, P.-H.

Huiban, G.

G. Huiban, S. Perennes, and M. Syska, ''Traffic grooming in WDM networks with multi-layer switches,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'02) (IEEE, 2002).

Izmailov, R.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, ''Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks,'' in High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 317-322.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.

Jue, J.

S. Varma and J. Jue, ''Protection in multi-granular waveband networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'04 (2004), pp. 1759-1763.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, ''A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,'' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

Kang, C.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karasan, E.

E. Karasan and E. Ayanoglu, ''Effects of wavelength routing and selection algorithms on wavelength conversion gain in WDM optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 186-196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kleptsyn, V.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.

Klonidis, D.

Kudou, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.

Lacey, J.

D. E. J. Yates, J. Lacey, and M. Summerfield, ''Limited-range wavelength translation in all-optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'96 (1996), pp. 954-961.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,'' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Survivable waveband switching in WDM mesh networks under dedicated-path protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'05 (2005).

Lingampalli, R.

R. Lingampalli and P. Vengalam, ''Effect of wavelength and waveband grooming on all-optical networks with single layer photonic switching,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThP4.

Marshall, L. R.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, ''All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper WH2.

Modiano, E.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Uniform versus non-uniform band switching in WDM networks,'' Comput. Netw. 50, 149-167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Optimal waveband switching in WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04) (IEEE, 2004).

Mokhtar, A.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, ''Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, 197-206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, ''A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,'' Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II: restoration,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'99) (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 3, pp. 2023-2030.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I--protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'99, New York, USA (1999), pp. 21-25.

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

Murata, M.

H. M. H. Harai and M. Murata, ''Performance of all-optical networks with limited-range wavelength conversion,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'97) (IEEE, 1997), pp. 416-421.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, F. Dorgeuille, and A. Bisson, ''32×10 Gbit/s DWDM metropolitan network demonstration with 10 waveband--ADMs and 155 km teralight metro fiber,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThH4.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, ''Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2001), Paper TuG3.

O'Mahony, M. J.

Ozeki, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.

Park, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, ''Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 166-171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perennes, S.

G. Huiban, S. Perennes, and M. Syska, ''Traffic grooming in WDM networks with multi-layer switches,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'02) (IEEE, 2002).

Politi, C.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''A framework for waveband switching in multi-granular optical networks: Part I--multi-granular cross-connect architectures,'' J. Opt. Netw. 5, 1043-1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Waveband switching in optical networks,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 105-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, ''A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multigranular optical cross-connects,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1081-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model,'' Kluwer J. Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, 309-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Survivable waveband switching in WDM mesh networks under dedicated-path protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'05 (2005).

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Wavelength conversion in WDM networking,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, S.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, part I--protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'99, New York, USA (1999), pp. 21-25.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, ''Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II: restoration,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'99) (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 3, pp. 2023-2030.

Ramaswami, R.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and W. Wang, ''Making use of a two stage multiplexing scheme in a WDM network,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2000), Paper ThD1.

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saengudomlert, P.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Uniform versus non-uniform band switching in WDM networks,'' Comput. Netw. 50, 149-167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, ''Optimal waveband switching in WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'04) (IEEE, 2004).

Shimizu, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, ''Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 1999), Paper WM55.

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Summerfield, M.

D. E. J. Yates, J. Lacey, and M. Summerfield, ''Limited-range wavelength translation in all-optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'96 (1996), pp. 954-961.

Syska, M.

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M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, ''Survivable waveband switching in WDM mesh networks under dedicated-path protection,'' in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'05 (2005).

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G. Huiban, S. Perennes, and M. Syska, ''Traffic grooming in WDM networks with multi-layer switches,'' in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'02) (IEEE, 2002).

R. Lingampalli and P. Vengalam, ''Effect of wavelength and waveband grooming on all-optical networks with single layer photonic switching,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper ThP4.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, ''All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), Paper WH2.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and W. Wang, ''Making use of a two stage multiplexing scheme in a WDM network,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2000), Paper ThD1.

L. Noirie, M. Vigoureux, and E. Dotaro, ''Impact of intermediate grouping on the dimensioning of multi-granularity optical networks,'' in Proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2001), Paper TuG3.

D. E. J. Yates, J. Lacey, and M. Summerfield, ''Limited-range wavelength translation in all-optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'96 (1996), pp. 954-961.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, ''Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks,'' in High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 317-322.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, ''Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'03 (2003), Vol. II.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, ''Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching,'' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'04 (2004).

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks (McGraw-Hill, 1997).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reconfigurable multilayer MG-OXC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength and waveband conversion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recovery schemes using WBS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backup bandwidth sharing using WBS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Band swapping and merging for intralink failure restoration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Blocking probability of various conversion schemes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum number of used wavelength converters ( β = 1 ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Blocking performance with LWC ( load = 0.386 ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Blocking performance with LWC ( d = 10 ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Blocking performance ( β = 0.75 ) .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Maximum number of used wavelength converters ( β = 0.75 ) .