Abstract

We propose new wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical interconnect architectures with simultaneous space-wavelength switching capability and reduced complexity. The proposed architectures improve over existing space-wavelength Benes networks, as these require the same number of stages and hardware components as a pure space Benes network. In addition, wavelength conversion in the proposed designs occurs only between two predefined wavelengths, eliminating the need for expensive wide-range wavelength converters used in most existing designs. We develop and characterize three families of WDM Benes networks with reduced complexity, and we present a typical architecture in each of the families. We also propose a routing strategy to establish connections over each of the proposed families. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of the properties of proposed architectures with respect to known WDM Benes networks. It is shown that the new designs require a smaller number of switching stages and space switches, and they have a smaller overall cost compared to most existing WDM Benes interconnects.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Mukherjee, 'WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).
  2. Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).
  3. A. C. Dasylva, D. Y. Montuno, and P. Kodaypak, 'Linear cross talk in wave-mixing optical cross connects,' J. Opt. Netw. 2, 413-427 (2003).
  4. A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, 'Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.
  5. G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Antoniades, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern, 'An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).
  7. N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Qin and Y. Yang, 'Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).
  9. Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.
  10. W. K. Lai, 'Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).
  11. S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, 'Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).
  12. T. E. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: a Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).
  13. C. Clos, 'A study of non-blocking switching networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).
  14. R. A. Spanke, 'Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).
  15. R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, 'An N-stage planar optical permutation network,' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).
  16. V. E. Benes, 'On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).
  17. W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  18. A. Pattavina and G. Maier, 'Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.
  19. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).
  20. D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, 'A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).
  21. D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, 'Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.
  22. H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, 'Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.
  23. R. Kannan, 'The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).
  24. A. Pattavina, 'Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for IP networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).
  25. A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, and D. J. Blumenthal, 'An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability,' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, 'Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.
  29. H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, 'Wavelength exchanging cross-connect (WEX): a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).
  30. A. Chowdhury, S. C. Hagness, and L. McCaughan, 'Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional second-order nonlinear photonic crystal,' Opt. Lett. 25, 832-834 (2000).
  31. K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, 'Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Krähenbühl, M. M. Howerton, J Dubinger, and A. S. Greenblatt, 'Peformance and modeling of advanced Ti:LiNbO3 digital optical switches,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 92-99 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Waksman, 'A permutation network,' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).
  36. D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, 'On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).
  37. K. Y. Lee, 'A new Benes network control algorithm,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).
  38. T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, 'Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

A. Pattavina, 'Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for IP networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

R. Kannan, 'The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, 'Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

R. Krähenbühl, M. M. Howerton, J Dubinger, and A. S. Greenblatt, 'Peformance and modeling of advanced Ti:LiNbO3 digital optical switches,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 92-99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Qin and Y. Yang, 'Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

2000 (3)

W. K. Lai, 'Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, 'WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

A. Chowdhury, S. C. Hagness, and L. McCaughan, 'Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional second-order nonlinear photonic crystal,' Opt. Lett. 25, 832-834 (2000).

1999 (4)

N. Antoniades, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern, 'An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

1998 (2)

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, 'Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, and D. J. Blumenthal, 'An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability,' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, 'Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

1987 (3)

R. A. Spanke, 'Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, 'An N-stage planar optical permutation network,' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

K. Y. Lee, 'A new Benes network control algorithm,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).

1981 (1)

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, 'A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

1971 (1)

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, 'On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

1968 (1)

A. Waksman, 'A permutation network,' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).

1962 (1)

V. E. Benes, 'On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

1958 (1)

C. Clos, 'A study of non-blocking switching networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

Anand, V.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, 'Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

Antoniades, N.

Bainbridge, J. D.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bala, K.

Benes, V. E.

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, 'An N-stage planar optical permutation network,' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

V. E. Benes, 'On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

Blumenthal, D. J.

Carena, A.

Chowdhury, A.

Clos, C.

C. Clos, 'A study of non-blocking switching networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

Dally, W. J.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

Dasylva, A. C.

Deogun, J. S.

Doerr, C.

Dubinger, J

Ellinas, G.

Gaudino, R.

Greenblatt, A. S.

Guild, K. M.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

Hamazumi, Y.

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

Hamza, H. S.

Hornak, L. A.

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, 'Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

Howerton, M. M.

Hunter, D. K.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, R.

R. Kannan, 'The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).

Kazovsky, L. G.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kodaypak, P.

Krähenbühl, R.

Lai, W. K.

W. K. Lai, 'Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).

Lee, K. Y.

K. Y. Lee, 'A new Benes network control algorithm,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).

Lee, T. T.

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, 'Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

Liew, S. Y.

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, 'Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

Maier, G.

A. Pattavina and G. Maier, 'Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.

Marhic, M. E.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

Mikkelsen, B.

Moei, K.

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montuno, D. Y.

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, 'WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

Nagatsu, N.

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

Nassimi, D.

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, 'A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

Ngo, H. Q.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, 'Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, 'Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, 'Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

Okamoto, S.

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opferman, D. C.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, 'On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

Pan, D.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, 'Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, 'Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, 'Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

Pattavina, A.

A. Pattavina, 'Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for IP networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

A. Pattavina and G. Maier, 'Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.

Qiao, C.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, 'Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

Qin, X.

X. Qin and Y. Yang, 'Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

Rasala, A.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, 'Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, 'Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, 'A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

Saruwatari, M.

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, 'Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

Shell, M.

Spanke, R. A.

R. A. Spanke, 'Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, 'An N-stage planar optical permutation network,' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

Stern, T. E.

Takara, H.

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tewksbury, S. K.

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, 'Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

Towles, B.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

Tsao-Wu, N. T.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, 'On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

Uesaka, K.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, M. D.

Waksman, A.

A. Waksman, 'A permutation network,' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).

Wang, J.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilfong, G.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, 'WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, 'Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

Wong, K. K.-Y.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Qin and Y. Yang, 'Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, 'Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, 'Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yuan, S.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, 'Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zirngibl, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, 'An N-stage planar optical permutation network,' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

V. E. Benes, 'On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

C. Clos, 'A study of non-blocking switching networks,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, 'On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, 'Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, 'Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, 'WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Spanke, 'Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

B. Mukherjee, 'WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, 'Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, 'Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, 'Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, 'Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

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