R. Kannan, ''The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, ''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

A. Pattavina, ''Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for IP networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

[Crossref]

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

R. Krähenbühl, M. M. Howerton, J Dubinger, and A. S. Greenblatt, ''Peformance and modeling of advanced Ti:LiNbO3 digital optical switches,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 92-99 (2002).

[Crossref]

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

W. K. Lai, ''Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, ''WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

A. Chowdhury, S. C. Hagness, and L. McCaughan, ''Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional second-order nonlinear photonic crystal,'' Opt. Lett. 25, 832-834 (2000).

N. Antoniades, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern, ''An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

[Crossref]

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).

[Crossref]

A. Pattavina and G. Maier, ''Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,'' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, ''Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,'' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

T. E. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: a Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, ''Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,'' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).

[Crossref]

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, and D. J. Blumenthal, ''An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).

[Crossref]

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, ''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

[Crossref]

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, ''Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).

[Crossref]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, ''Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, ''Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

R. A. Spanke, ''Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, ''An N-stage planar optical permutation network,'' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

K. Y. Lee, ''A new Benes network control algorithm,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, ''A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

A. Waksman, ''A permutation network,'' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).

V. E. Benes, ''On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

C. Clos, ''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, ''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).

[Crossref]

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, ''An N-stage planar optical permutation network,'' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

V. E. Benes, ''On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

C. Clos, ''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).

[Crossref]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, ''Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, ''Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).

[Crossref]

R. Kannan, ''The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

W. K. Lai, ''Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).

K. Y. Lee, ''A new Benes network control algorithm,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

A. Pattavina and G. Maier, ''Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,'' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, ''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

[Crossref]

B. Mukherjee, ''WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, ''Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).

[Crossref]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, ''Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, ''A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, ''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, ''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, ''Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).

[Crossref]

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, ''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, ''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, ''Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,'' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, ''Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,'' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).

[Crossref]

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, ''A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, ''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

[Crossref]

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, ''Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).

[Crossref]

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, ''Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

R. A. Spanke, ''Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, ''An N-stage planar optical permutation network,'' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, ''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

[Crossref]

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, ''Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

A. Waksman, ''A permutation network,'' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

[Crossref]

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

[Crossref]

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, ''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

[Crossref]

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, ''Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,'' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, ''Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,'' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).

[Crossref]

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, ''An N-stage planar optical permutation network,'' Appl. Opt. 26, (1987).

V. E. Benes, ''On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

C. Clos, ''A study of non-blocking switching networks,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 407-424 (1958).

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, ''On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: control algorithm,'' Bell Syst. Tech. J. 5, 1579-1600 (1971).

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, ''Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarisation independent 2×2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals,'' Electron. Lett. 34, 1341-1342 (1998).

[Crossref]

K. Moei, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, ''Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 520-522 (1997).

[Crossref]

D. K. Hunter, K. M. Guild, and J. D. Bainbridge, ''WASPNET: a wavelength-switched packet network,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(3), 120-129 (1999).

[Crossref]

R. A. Spanke, ''Architectures for guided-wave optical space switching systems,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 25, 42-48 (1987).

S. K. Tewksbury and L. A. Hornak, ''Communication network issues and high density interconnects in large-scale distributed computing systems,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 587-609 (1988).

B. Mukherjee, ''WDM optical communication networks: progress and challenges,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K. Sato, ''Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).

[Crossref]

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, ''Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: theory and experiments,'' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 560-568 (2002).

[Crossref]

X. Qin and Y. Yang, ''Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2032-2041 (2002).

T. T. Lee and S. Y. Liew, ''Parallel routing algorithms in Benes-Close networks,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

K. Y. Lee, ''A new Benes network control algorithm,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 36, 768-772 (1987).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Designing WDM optical interconnects with full connectivity by using limited wavelength conversion,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 1547-1556 (2004).

[Crossref]

R. Kannan, ''The KR-Benes network: a control-optimal rearrangeable permutation network,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 54, 534-544 (2005).

D. Nassimi and S. Sahni, ''A self-routing Benes network and parallel permutation algorithms,'' IEEE Trans. Comput. 30, 332-340 (1981).

W. K. Lai, ''Performing permutations on interconnection networks by regularly changing switch states,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 11, 829-837 (2000).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, ''Cost-effective designs of WDM optical interconnects,'' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.. 16, 51-66 (2005).

A. Waksman, ''A permutation network,'' J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 15, 158-163 (1968).

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, ''Optical burst switching (obs): a new paradigm for an optical internet,'' J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

A. Pattavina, ''Architectures and performance of optical packet switching nodes for IP networks,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1023-1032 (2005).

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, and D. J. Blumenthal, ''An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).

[Crossref]

R. Krähenbühl, M. M. Howerton, J Dubinger, and A. S. Greenblatt, ''Peformance and modeling of advanced Ti:LiNbO3 digital optical switches,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 92-99 (2002).

[Crossref]

H. S. Hamza and J. S. Deogun, ''Wavelength exchanging cross-connect (WEX): a new class of photonic cross-connect architectures,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1101-1111 (2006).

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, ''WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1732-1741 (1999).

[Crossref]

N. Antoniades, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas, and T. E. Stern, ''An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1113-1125 (1999).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and Y. Yang, ''Optical switching networks with minimum number of limited range wavelength converters,'' in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1128-1138.

D. Pan, V. Anand, and H. Q. Ngo, ''Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks,'' in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communication (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1801-1805.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, and C. Qiao, ''Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelegnth conversion,'' in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 1352-1362.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, ''Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects,'' in Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000), pp. 606-615.

Y. Hamazumi, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, ''Number wavelengths required for optical networks with failure restoration,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1994), pp. 67-68.

T. E. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: a Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

A. Pattavina and G. Maier, ''Photonic rearrangeable networks with zero switching-elements crosstalk,'' in Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 1999 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 337-344.