Abstract

This paper reviews recent progress on ultra-large-area low-loss fibers for next-generation high-capacity terrestrial long-haul optical networks. The key optical fiber properties of new class fibers are described, and their impact on the transmission performance for 400 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed multilevel modulation coherent transmissions is discussed. The practical consideration of the large-area fibers, such as splicing and cabling for terrestrial transport systems, is also briefly addressed. In addition, we describe two advanced optical fiber amplifier technologies that will improve the efficiency in utilization of optical networking and reduce total system costs. The design and performance of an arrayed optical fiber amplifier using a compact ribbonized Er-doped fiber (EDF) for next-generation reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer nodes are discussed, and the performance characteristics of complementary Raman/EDFA, which has +70  nm bandwidth for seamless C+L-band transmissions, are described. Finally, we present the experimental demonstration of transmission of 34.6 Tb/s in 70 nm single band over 2400 km fiber.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  19. B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
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    [Crossref]
  22. B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.
  23. B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.
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2014 (2)

C. Xie, B. Zhu, and E. Burrows, “Transmission performance of 256-Gb/s PDM-16QAM with different amplification schemes and channel spacings,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, pp. 2324–2331, 2014.
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Batshon, H. G.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Bergano, N.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Bigot-Astruc, M.

M. Bigot-Astruc and P. Sillard, “Realizing large effective area fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper OTh4I.1.

Bononi, A.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, N. Rossi, and D. Sperti, “Which is the dominant nonlinearity in long-haul PDM-QPSK?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, 2010, paper Th.10.E.1.

Borel, P.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Breverman, C.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Burrows, E.

Cai, J. X.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Cai, Y.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Carlson, K.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Carvelli, T.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Chandrasekhar, S.

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

Chang, D.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, “Impact and mitigation of non-linear effects in coherent transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, California, 2009, paper NthB.4.

G. Charlet, “Fiber characteristics for next-generation ultra-long-haul transmission systems,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, 2010, paper We.8.F.1.

Corbett, P.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Cordell, R.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Davidson, C.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Diehl, P. G.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

Doerr, C. R.

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Foursa, D.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Foursa, D. G.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Fukutoku, M.

Gaarde, P.

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Time elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Hirano, K. Kuwahara, and T. Sasaki, “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fibre with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, California, 2010, paper OTuI2.

Isaac, R.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Jiang, X.

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Time elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. J.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Kataoka, T.

Kawai, T.

Kidorf, H.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Kuwahara, K.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Hirano, K. Kuwahara, and T. Sasaki, “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fibre with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, California, 2010, paper OTuI2.

Lewis, D. A.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Li, Y.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

Liu, X.

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Time elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[Crossref]

Magill, P. D.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Makovejs, S.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Matthews, H. B.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Mazurczyk, M.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Mills, M.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Naito, T.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Nakamoto, H.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Nissov, M.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Palacios, F.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Patterson, J. D.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Peckham, D.

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

Peckham, D. W.

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Pilipetskii, A.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Roberts, C. C.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Rossi, N.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, N. Rossi, and D. Sperti, “Which is the dominant nonlinearity in long-haul PDM-QPSK?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, 2010, paper Th.10.E.1.

Sakamaki, Y.

Sasaki, T.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Hirano, K. Kuwahara, and T. Sasaki, “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fibre with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, California, 2010, paper OTuI2.

Serena, P.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, N. Rossi, and D. Sperti, “Which is the dominant nonlinearity in long-haul PDM-QPSK?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, 2010, paper Th.10.E.1.

Shi, X.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Shimojoh, N.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Sillard, P.

M. Bigot-Astruc and P. Sillard, “Realizing large effective area fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper OTh4I.1.

Smith, D. T.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Sperti, D.

A. Bononi, P. Serena, N. Rossi, and D. Sperti, “Which is the dominant nonlinearity in long-haul PDM-QPSK?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, 2010, paper Th.10.E.1.

Spiekman, L. H.

Stojanovic, N.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Stulz, L.

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Stulz, S.

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, A.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Sun, Y.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Suyama, M.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Suzuki, K.

Tanaka, T.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Ten, S. Y.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Torii, K.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Towery, C. R.

S. Makovejs, C. C. Roberts, F. Palacios, H. B. Matthews, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, J. D. Patterson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper Th5A.3.

Ueki, T.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

Way, W. I.

W. I. Way, “Optimum architecture for M × N multicast switch-based colorless, directionless, contentionless, and flexible-grid ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper NW3F.5.

Wellbrock, G.

G. Wellbrock and T. J. Xia, “How will optical transport deal with future network traffic growth?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper Th.1.2.1.

Wisk, P. W.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

Xia, T. J.

G. Wellbrock and T. J. Xia, “How will optical transport deal with future network traffic growth?” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper Th.1.2.1.

Xiao, Z.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, B. Zhu, and E. Burrows, “Transmission performance of 256-Gb/s PDM-16QAM with different amplification schemes and channel spacings,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, pp. 2324–2331, 2014.
[Crossref]

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

Xiong, Q.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Xu, L.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

Xu, X.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, M. Hirano, K. Kuwahara, and T. Sasaki, “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fibre with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, California, 2010, paper OTuI2.

Yan, M. F.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

Yoo, S.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Time elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

Yu, J.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

Zhang, H.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

Zhang, J.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

Zhou, X.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Zhu, B.

C. Xie, B. Zhu, and E. Burrows, “Transmission performance of 256-Gb/s PDM-16QAM with different amplification schemes and channel spacings,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  32, pp. 2324–2331, 2014.
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

B. Zhu, “Large-area low loss fibers and advanced amplifiers for high capacity long haul optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, 2015, paper We.2.4.1.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 × 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64 QAM using cascaded equalization and training assisted phase recovery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2012, paper PDP5C.6.

Zimmerman, D. R.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Zhu, C. R. Doerr, P. Gaarde, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, L. Stulz, and L. Gruner-Nielsen, “Broad bandwidth seamless transmission of 3.56 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of NZDF fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, pp. 1528–1530, 2003.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. Yoo, “Time elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Zhu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission performance of a 485-Gb/s CO-OFDM superchannel with PDM-16QAM subcarriers over ULAF and SSMF-based links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, pp. 1400–1402, 2011.
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and P. D. Magill, “All-Raman-amplified, 73 nm seamless band transmission of 9 Tb/s over 6000 km of fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 242–245, 2014.
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (17)

B. Zhu, C. Xie, L. E. Nelson, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “70 nm seamless band transmission of 17.3 Tb/s over 40 × 100 km of fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2015, paper W3G.4.

B. Zhu, J. Zhang, J. Yu, D. Peckham, R. Lingle, M. F. Yan, P. W. Wisk, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “34.6 Tb/s (173 × 256 Gb/s) single-band transmission over 2400 km fiber using complementary Raman/EDFA,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2016, paper Tu3A.1.

D. Chang, F. Yu, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, X. Shi, X. Xu, and Q. Xiong, “FPGA verification of a single QC-LDPC code for 100 Gb/s optical systems without error floor down to BER of 10-15,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, California, 2011, paper OTuN2.

N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, T. Tanaka, H. Nakamoto, T. Ueki, A. Sugiyama, K. Torii, and M. Suyama, “2.4 Tbit/s WDM transmission over 7400 km using all Raman amplifier repeaters with 74 nm continuous single band,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, paper PD.M.1.7.

D. Foursa, C. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. Mills, L. Xu, J. X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. Cordell, T. Carvelli, P. Corbett, H. Kidorf, and N. Bergano, “2.56 Tbit/s (256 × 10 Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman-EDFAs with 80 nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, California, 2002, paper FC3.

J. X. Cai, Y. Sun, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, and A. N. Pilipetskii, “54 Tb/s transmission over 9,150 km with optimized hybrid Raman-EDFA amplification and coded modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 2014, paper PD3.3.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Relative FOM of large-area low-loss fiber normalized to SSMF for 80 km span transmission.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured Q 2 versus launch powers of 485 Gb/s CO-OFDM signal transmission over 1600 km of ULAF and SSMF [3].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Q 2 factor versus transmission distance of the 10 channel 256 Gb/s PDM 16QAM system using the three different amplification schemes without (solid curves) and with ROADMs (dashed curves) with 50 GHz channel spacing. Optimum launch powers are used.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Diagram of a 1 × 8 arrayed EDFA. Inset: schematic of an 8-EDF ribbon.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Measured gain and gain deviation of individual EDFAs in an arrayed EDFA. (b) Measured NF of the eight EDFAs in a 1 × 8 arrayed amplifier.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Diagram of a complementary Raman/EDFA for a 100 km TeraWave fiber span.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Designed GFF used in the complementary Raman/EDFA.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Measured EDFA gain and Raman gain from the complementary Raman/EDFA. (b) Measured total gain w/GFF and effective NF.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Diagram for seamless band transmission loop experiment.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Performance versus transmission distance. Inset shows the recovered constellations for x and y polarization of the channel 1554.94 nm after 2400 km.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Received optical spectrum. (b) Received OSNR and measured - Q factors after 24 × 100    km transmission.

Tables (1)

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TABLE I Peak Absorption of Individual EDF in Ribbon EDF

Equations (1)

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FOM = 10 log 10 ( A eff A eff SMF ) ( α α SMF ) L 10 log 10 ( L eff L eff SMF ) ,