Abstract

The increasing success of multimedia services poses a serious challenge to both network operators and service providers. Traditional copper-based access technologies are being replaced by fiber-to-the-X (FTTX) deployments in order to meet this increasing bandwidth demand of individual users. However, the growing traffic volume in the access segment may overload the existing aggregation part of the network, therefore creating a bandwidth bottleneck in the core. To address this problem the traffic should be kept as much as possible in the access network, taking advantage of the high-capacity fiber infrastructure. Since multimedia traffic is dominating the network, locality-aware approaches to video content distribution can represent a good solution. In this work, we propose and evaluate a network-managed, peer-to-peer based caching scheme for multimedia distribution. Our results show that such a system is able to reduce core traffic compared to the traditional content delivery network (CDN) based strategies, while at the same time decreasing the overall power consumption of the network and offering cost-saving opportunities for operators.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Simon, “In a telco–CDN, pushing content makes sense,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag., vol.  10, no. 3, pp. 300–311, Sept. 2013.

A. Sharma, A. Venkataramani, and R. K. Sitaraman, “Distributing content simplifies ISP traffic engineering,” Perform. Eval. Rev., vol.  41, no. 1, pp. 229–242, June 2013.

2012 (5)

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

M. Ruffini, D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, L. Doyle, and D. B. Payne, “Deployment strategies for protected long-reach PON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 118–129, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Z. Shen and J. Luo, “Peer-to-peer media streaming: Insights and new developments,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 12, pp. 2089–2109, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Dai, F. Liu, and B. Li, “The disparity between P2P overlays and ISP underlays: Issues, existing solutions, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 36–41, Nov. 2010.

Achouche, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Alimi, R.

R. Alimi, R. Penno, and Y. Yang, “ALTO protocol,” IETF Internet draft 20, pp. 1–80, 2013.

Awano, J.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Ayhan, T.

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Baldessari, R.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Barakat, C.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Chai, W. K.

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

Chellouche, S. A.

S. A. Chellouche, D. Negru, Y. Chen, and M. Sidibe, “Home-box-assisted content delivery network for Internet video-on-demand services,” in IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, July 2012, pp. 544–550.

Chen, J.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. A. Chellouche, D. Negru, Y. Chen, and M. Sidibe, “Home-box-assisted content delivery network for Internet video-on-demand services,” in IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, July 2012, pp. 544–550.

Cho, K.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Dabbous, W.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Dahlfort, S.

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, F. Liu, and B. Li, “The disparity between P2P overlays and ISP underlays: Issues, existing solutions, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 36–41, Nov. 2010.

de Betou, E. I.

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Di Pascale, E.

E. Di Pascale, D. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Impact of popularity evolution on P2P-based VoD delivery over next-generation optical access networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2013, pp. 2204–2209.

E. Di Pascale, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Bandwidth and energy savings of locality-aware P2P content distribution in next-generation PONs,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Dixit, A.

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Doran, N.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Doyle, L.

Farjady, F.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Garroppo, R.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Idzikowski, F.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

In, O.

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Jayasundara, C.

C. Jayasundara and A. Nirmalathas, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OWR3.

Jung, H.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, S.

M. Stiemerling and S. Kiesel, “ALTO deployment considerations,” IETF Internet draft, 2013.

Ko, D.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kwon, T.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lambert, S.

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Lannoo, B.

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Lee, M.

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Legout, A.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Li, B.

J. Dai, F. Liu, and B. Li, “The disparity between P2P overlays and ISP underlays: Issues, existing solutions, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 36–41, Nov. 2010.

Li, Z.

Z. Li and G. Simon, “In a telco–CDN, pushing content makes sense,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag., vol.  10, no. 3, pp. 300–311, Sept. 2013.

Liebsch, M.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.-S.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Liu, F.

J. Dai, F. Liu, and B. Li, “The disparity between P2P overlays and ISP underlays: Issues, existing solutions, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 36–41, Nov. 2010.

Luo, J.

Z. Shen and J. Luo, “Peer-to-peer media streaming: Insights and new developments,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 12, pp. 2089–2109, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D.

Montalvo, J.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Mukherjee, B.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Negru, D.

S. A. Chellouche, D. Negru, Y. Chen, and M. Sidibe, “Home-box-assisted content delivery network for Internet video-on-demand services,” in IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, July 2012, pp. 544–550.

Niccolini, S.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Jayasundara and A. Nirmalathas, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OWR3.

O’Sullivan, B.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, L. Doyle, and D. B. Payne, “Deployment strategies for protected long-reach PON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 118–129, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Ossieur, P.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Ozawa, K.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Parsons, N.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Pavlou, G.

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

Payne, D.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

D. Payne, “FTTP deployment options and economic challenges,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

E. Di Pascale, D. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Impact of popularity evolution on P2P-based VoD delivery over next-generation optical access networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2013, pp. 2204–2209.

Payne, D. B.

M. Ruffini, D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, L. Doyle, and D. B. Payne, “Deployment strategies for protected long-reach PON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 118–129, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

E. Di Pascale, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Bandwidth and energy savings of locality-aware P2P content distribution in next-generation PONs,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Penno, R.

R. Alimi, R. Penno, and Y. Yang, “ALTO protocol,” IETF Internet draft 20, pp. 1–80, 2013.

Pfeiffer, T.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Pickavet, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

Psaras, I.

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

Qiu, X.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Quesada, L.

Raack, C.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Rao, A.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Reaz, A. S.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Rohde, H.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, L. Doyle, and D. B. Payne, “Deployment strategies for protected long-reach PON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 118–129, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

E. Di Pascale, D. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Impact of popularity evolution on P2P-based VoD delivery over next-generation optical access networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2013, pp. 2204–2209.

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

E. Di Pascale, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Bandwidth and energy savings of locality-aware P2P content distribution in next-generation PONs,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

Schiano, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Schmid, S.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, A. Venkataramani, and R. K. Sitaraman, “Distributing content simplifies ISP traffic engineering,” Perform. Eval. Rev., vol.  41, no. 1, pp. 229–242, June 2013.

Shen, Z.

Z. Shen and J. Luo, “Peer-to-peer media streaming: Insights and new developments,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 12, pp. 2089–2109, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Sidibe, M.

S. A. Chellouche, D. Negru, Y. Chen, and M. Sidibe, “Home-box-assisted content delivery network for Internet video-on-demand services,” in IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, July 2012, pp. 544–550.

Simon, G.

Z. Li and G. Simon, “In a telco–CDN, pushing content makes sense,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag., vol.  10, no. 3, pp. 300–311, Sept. 2013.

Sitaraman, R. K.

A. Sharma, A. Venkataramani, and R. K. Sitaraman, “Distributing content simplifies ISP traffic engineering,” Perform. Eval. Rev., vol.  41, no. 1, pp. 229–242, June 2013.

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Spagna, S.

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Stiemerling, M.

M. Stiemerling and S. Kiesel, “ALTO deployment considerations,” IETF Internet draft, 2013.

Townsend, P.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

Towsley, D.

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

Tucker, R. S.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

Van Heddeghem, W.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Venkataramani, A.

A. Sharma, A. Venkataramani, and R. K. Sitaraman, “Distributing content simplifies ISP traffic engineering,” Perform. Eval. Rev., vol.  41, no. 1, pp. 229–242, June 2013.

Vereecken, W.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

Wessaly, R.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Wosinska, L.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Yang, Y.

R. Alimi, R. Penno, and Y. Yang, “ALTO protocol,” IETF Internet draft 20, pp. 1–80, 2013.

Yin, X.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

Ann. Telecommun. (1)

G. Pavlou, N. Wang, W. K. Chai, and I. Psaras, “Internet-scale content mediation in information-centric networks,” Ann. Telecommun., vol.  68, no. 3–4, pp. 167–177, Oct. 2012.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

B. Skubic, E. I. de Betou, T. Ayhan, S. Dahlfort, and O. In, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  52, no. 2, pp. S24–S32, Feb. 2014.
[CrossRef]

S. Spagna, M. Liebsch, R. Baldessari, S. Niccolini, S. Schmid, R. Garroppo, K. Ozawa, and J. Awano, “Design principles of an operator-owned highly distributed content delivery network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 4, pp. 132–140, Apr. 2013.
[CrossRef]

K. Cho, H. Jung, M. Lee, D. Ko, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, “How can an ISP merge with a CDN?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 156–162, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

J. Dai, F. Liu, and B. Li, “The disparity between P2P overlays and ISP underlays: Issues, existing solutions, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 36–41, Nov. 2010.

IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag. (1)

Z. Li and G. Simon, “In a telco–CDN, pushing content makes sense,” IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag., vol.  10, no. 3, pp. 300–311, Sept. 2013.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Perform. Eval. Rev. (1)

A. Sharma, A. Venkataramani, and R. K. Sitaraman, “Distributing content simplifies ISP traffic engineering,” Perform. Eval. Rev., vol.  41, no. 1, pp. 229–242, June 2013.

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Z. Shen and J. Luo, “Peer-to-peer media streaming: Insights and new developments,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 12, pp. 2089–2109, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

D. Payne, “FTTP deployment options and economic challenges,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Vienna, Austria, 2009.

M. Ruffini, N. Doran, M. Achouche, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Yin, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, R. Wessaly, L. Wosinska, J. Montalvo, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: End-to-end network design for ubiquitous high speed broadband services,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2013.

E. Di Pascale, D. B. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Bandwidth and energy savings of locality-aware P2P content distribution in next-generation PONs,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Apr. 2012.

S. A. Chellouche, D. Negru, Y. Chen, and M. Sidibe, “Home-box-assisted content delivery network for Internet video-on-demand services,” in IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, July 2012, pp. 544–550.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Architectures for energy-efficient IPTV networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2009, paper OThQ5.

C. Jayasundara and A. Nirmalathas, “Energy efficient content distribution for VoD services,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OWR3.

R. Alimi, R. Penno, and Y. Yang, “ALTO protocol,” IETF Internet draft 20, pp. 1–80, 2013.

M. Stiemerling and S. Kiesel, “ALTO deployment considerations,” IETF Internet draft, 2013.

Edgeware, “Orbit 3020 video delivery server,” product sheet, 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.edgeware.tv/downloads/pdf/Orbit3020_A4.pdf .

A. Rao, A. Legout, Y.-S. Lim, D. Towsley, C. Barakat, and W. Dabbous, “Network characteristics of video streaming traffic,” in Proc. 7th Conf. on Emerging Network Experiments and Technology (CoNEXT), New York, NY, Dec. 2011.

E. Di Pascale, D. Payne, and M. Ruffini, “Impact of popularity evolution on P2P-based VoD delivery over next-generation optical access networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2013, pp. 2204–2209.

StorageReview.com, “Corsair Force F120 SSD review,” 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.storagereview.com/corsair_force_f120_ssd_review .

A. Dixit, B. Lannoo, S. Lambert, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, June 2012, paper Mo.2.B.5.

“Internet connection speed recommendations,” Netflix Help Center [Online]. Available: https://help.netflix.com/en/node/306 .

Sandvine, “Global Internet phenomena report: 1H 2013,” Tech. Rep., 2013.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of our reference network architecture featuring a LR-PON access and flat optical core based on the DISCUS architecture design [6,7].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sequence diagrams for (a) a local P2P data flow and (b) a nonlocal one, that is, between users connected to different metro/core nodes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Logical core topology used in our simulations, based on the results of [20].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Network components affected by each type of data flow in our energy consumption model.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average traffic generated per user by the strategies considered and for increasing values p of P2P users per PON.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average generated traffic for a current HD bit rate encoding of 5 Mbps and an estimated future 4K encoding bit rate of 15 Mbps.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Average generated traffic per user over various core topologies.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Total daily energy consumption, divided by component.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Daily energy consumption per user, divided by payee.

Tables (2)

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TABLE I Simulation Parameters

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TABLE II Power Consumption Parametersa

Equations (3)

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Treceive=tavg·RU,
Ttransmit=tavg·RP2PU,
E=(STBactive+ONUactive)(Treceive+Ttransmit)+(STBidle+ONUidle)(Tday(Treceive+Ttransmit))+(ETH+IP+OLT+MSC)Tday,