Abstract

This paper presents the demonstration of a distributed antenna system (DAS) based on a radio-over-fiber (RoF) bus for wireless local area networks (WLANs). The RoF bus has been designed based on the use of cascaded building blocks to support a large number of access nodes using electronic coupling and in-line amplification inside the access nodes. A dedicated emulation protocol has been defined to test the RoF bus, and experimental results have shown that a coverage distance of about 4.5 m is obtained for bidirectional communications up to 18 access nodes. For large buildings, a star-bus network, based on multiple interconnected RoF buses, is proposed, and significant reduction of in-building deployed fiber length is achieved (89%) compared to a RoF star network infrastructure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  3. A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.
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  7. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.
  8. Y. Le Guennec, A. Pizzinat, S. Meyer, B. Charbonnier, P. Lombard, M. Lourdiane, B. Cabon, C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, M. Terre, C. Rumelhard, J.-L. Polleux, H. Jacquinot, S. Bories, and C. Sillans, “Low-cost transparent radio-over-fiber system for in-building distribution of UWB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2649–2657, July2009.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Das, M. Mjeku, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Effects on IEEE802.11 MAC throughput in wireless LAN over fibre systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3321–3328, Nov.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov.2007.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.
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  22. Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.
  23. T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.
  24. J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

2014 (1)

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

2011 (2)

A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Ait Yahia, Y.

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Algani, C.

Y. Le Guennec, A. Pizzinat, S. Meyer, B. Charbonnier, P. Lombard, M. Lourdiane, B. Cabon, C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, M. Terre, C. Rumelhard, J.-L. Polleux, H. Jacquinot, S. Bories, and C. Sillans, “Low-cost transparent radio-over-fiber system for in-building distribution of UWB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2649–2657, July2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Attar, A.

A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

Ayhan, T.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Batchelor, J. C.

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Bidaux, L.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Billabert, A.-L.

Bories, S.

Bouhamri, Z.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

Cabon, B.

Y. Le Guennec, A. Pizzinat, S. Meyer, B. Charbonnier, P. Lombard, M. Lourdiane, B. Cabon, C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, M. Terre, C. Rumelhard, J.-L. Polleux, H. Jacquinot, S. Bories, and C. Sillans, “Low-cost transparent radio-over-fiber system for in-building distribution of UWB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2649–2657, July2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

Charbonnier, B.

Y. Le Guennec, A. Pizzinat, S. Meyer, B. Charbonnier, P. Lombard, M. Lourdiane, B. Cabon, C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, M. Terre, C. Rumelhard, J.-L. Polleux, H. Jacquinot, S. Bories, and C. Sillans, “Low-cost transparent radio-over-fiber system for in-building distribution of UWB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2649–2657, July2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Crisp, M.

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

Crisp, M. J.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Das, A.

A. Das, M. Mjeku, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Effects on IEEE802.11 MAC throughput in wireless LAN over fibre systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3321–3328, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Dhaini, A. R.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Dobremez, V.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Duchamp, J.-M.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

Fracasso, B.

Y. Josse, B. Fracasso, and P. Pajusco, “Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network,” in 14th Int. Symp. on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), Brest, France, Oct.2011.

Garcia, I. J.

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

George, J.

Gomes, N. J.

Gordon, G.

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

Gowda, A. S.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Guignard, P.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

Guillory, J.

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Islam, A. R.

R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, pp. 408–411.

Jacquinot, H.

Josse, Y.

Y. Josse, B. Fracasso, and P. Pajusco, “Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network,” in 14th Int. Symp. on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), Brest, France, Oct.2011.

Jung, H.-D.

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Kassi, R.

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Keiser, G.

G. Keiser, “Network implementation trade-offs in existing homes,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra-Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2012, pp. 528–532.

Kobyakov, A.

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. M. Okonkwo, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Large-core plastic optical fibre based in-home optical networks,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, pp. 1–5.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

Lannoo, B.

Le Guennec, Y.

Y. Le Guennec, A. Pizzinat, S. Meyer, B. Charbonnier, P. Lombard, M. Lourdiane, B. Cabon, C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, M. Terre, C. Rumelhard, J.-L. Polleux, H. Jacquinot, S. Bories, and C. Sillans, “Low-cost transparent radio-over-fiber system for in-building distribution of UWB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 14, pp. 2649–2657, July2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

Lethien, C.

Leung, V. C.

A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Lim, C.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Digitized RF-over-fiber technique as an efficient solution for wideband wireless OFDM delivery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTu2H-6.

Lombard, P.

Lourdiane, M.

Loyez, C.

Martinez, E. O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Maury, G.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

Meyer, S.

Mjeku, M.

Molisch, A. F.

A. F. Molisch, Wireless Communications. Wiley, 2010.

Ng’oma, A.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Nirmalathas, A.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Digitized RF-over-fiber technique as an efficient solution for wideband wireless OFDM delivery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTu2H-6.

Nkansah, A.

Okonkwo, C. M.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. M. Okonkwo, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Large-core plastic optical fibre based in-home optical networks,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Pajusco, P.

Y. Josse, B. Fracasso, and P. Pajusco, “Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network,” in 14th Int. Symp. on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), Brest, France, Oct.2011.

Penty, R.

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

Penty, R. V.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Pizzinat, A.

Polleux, J. L.

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Polleux, J.-L.

Rahman, S.

R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, pp. 408–411.

Razavi, B.

B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics: International Edition. Pearson, 2011.

Rolland, N.

Rolland, P.-A.

Rosales, M. D.

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Rumelhard, C.

Sauer, M.

Schimpf, A.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, pp. 408–411.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. M. Okonkwo, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Large-core plastic optical fibre based in-home optical networks,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Sillans, C.

Sion, C.

Tangdiongga, E.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Y. Shi, C. M. Okonkwo, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Large-core plastic optical fibre based in-home optical networks,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Terre, M.

Van den Boom, H.

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

van den Boom, H. P. A.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, A. Pizzinat, P. Guignard, B. Lannoo, C. M. Okonkwo, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B399–B405, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Vetter, P.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

Vilcot, J.-P.

Wake, D.

D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 16, pp. 2456–2464, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Watts, A.

White, I.

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

White, I. H.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3388–3395, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Wonfor, A.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Yang, H.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Digitized RF-over-fiber technique as an efficient solution for wideband wireless OFDM delivery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTu2H-6.

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol. (1)

A. Das, A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batchelor, and D. Wake, “Design of low-cost multimode fiber fed indoor wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Technol., vol.  54, no. 8, pp. 3426–3432, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

G. Gordon, M. Crisp, R. Penty, and I. White, “Experimental evaluation of layout designs for 3 × 3 MIMO-enabled radio-over-fiber distributed antenna systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 643–653, Feb.2014.

IEEE Wireless Commun. (1)

A. Attar, H. Li, and V. C. Leung, “Green last mile: How fiber-connected massively distributed antenna system can save energy,” IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 66–74, Oct.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (14)

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, H.-D. Jung, H. Yang, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic in-building networks—Architectures and advanced techniques,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Internet, Jeju, South Korea, Aug.2010, pp. 1–3.

L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. S. Gowda, A. R. Dhaini, A. Ng’oma, and P. Vetter, “Green in-building networks: The future convergence of green, optical and wireless technologies,” in 15th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013, pp. 1–5.

G. Keiser, “Network implementation trade-offs in existing homes,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra-Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2012, pp. 528–532.

Y. Josse, B. Fracasso, and P. Pajusco, “Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network,” in 14th Int. Symp. on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), Brest, France, Oct.2011.

Y. Shi, C. M. Okonkwo, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Large-core plastic optical fibre based in-home optical networks,” in 16th Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, A. Schimpf, V. Dobremez, L. Bidaux, and B. Cabon, “Multistandard RoF bus for in-building networks,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct.2011.

B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics: International Edition. Pearson, 2011.

R. A. Shafik, S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006, pp. 408–411.

A. F. Molisch, Wireless Communications. Wiley, 2010.

Z. Bouhamri, Y. Le Guennec, J.-M. Duchamp, G. Maury, and B. Cabon, “Quasi-static approach to optimize RF modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Montréal, Canada, Oct.2011.

T. Koonen, H. Van den Boom, E. Tangdiongga, H.-D. Jung, and P. Guignard, “Designing in-building optical fiber networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar.2010.

J. Guillory, Y. Ait Yahia, A. Pizzinat, B. Charbonnier, C. Algani, M. D. Rosales, and J. L. Polleux, “Comparison between two 60GHz multipoint RoF architectures for the home area network,” in 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), 2012, pp. 1–5.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2007.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Digitized RF-over-fiber technique as an efficient solution for wideband wireless OFDM delivery,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTu2H-6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

RoF bus infrastructure: (a) downlink and (b) uplink. Opt. link, optical link.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured EVM as a function of WLAN modulating power for VCSEL/PIN and TOSA/ROSA optical links.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Access node RF front end.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Test bench for RoF bus infrastructure using emulation protocol. DAC, digital-to-analog conversion; ADC, analog-to-digital conversion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured EVM at access node output after emulated transmissions over N building blocks. Insets: Measured WLAN constellation diagram for (a) N=1 and (b) N=20.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured downlink and uplink radio coverage with emulated transmissions over N building blocks.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) RoF star and (b) RoF star-bus network topologies.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Optical Link Specifications

Tables Icon

TABLE II Radio Specifications for WLAN 802.11g

Tables Icon

TABLE III Access Node and Mobile Unit Specifications

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Emulation Protocol Validation With TOSA/ROSA Building Block

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Gopt=1.
Gin-line=1Gcoup(x).
1CPDL=i=1NGopti1Gcoup(x)i1Gin-linei1CPopt+i=1NGoptiGcoup(x)i1Gin-linei1CPin-line+i=1NGoptiGcoup(x)i1Gin-lineiCPcoup(x)+Gcoup(1x)GoptNGcoup(x)N1Gin-lineNCPRFDL,
1CPDL=NCPopt+NCPin-line+Gcoup(1x)Gin-lineCPRFDL.
CPDLCPoptN.
CPULCPoptNGRFULGcoup(1x)Gin-line,
PMODDL/UL=CPDL/ULPAPR.
GDL=Gin-lineGcoup(1x)GRFDL.
NFDLNNFopt.
EVM=NFDLSNRin,
SWLAN=NFWLANSNRreqkT0B,
PL=PTXGANTGANTMUSWLAN,
GUL=Gin-lineGcoup(1x)GRFUL.
NFULNNFoptGUL.
SUL=NFULSNRreqkT0B.
NFUL=NFWLAN.
GRFUL=NNFoptNFWLANGcoup(1x)Gin-line.
Lfiber star=M(M+1)H+MN2L.
Lfiber star-bus=M(2N1)L.