Abstract

Emerging trends in optical transport networks aiming to support increasing data rates are reshaping the possibilities for network planning. The deployment of a flexible grid with multiple available channel bit rates and spectral widths gives way to a more clearly defined trade-off between spectrum and cost in the planning process. Furthermore, providing redundancy in these types of services is both crucial and costly. For this reason, it is important to consider all these aspects simultaneously in order to have an accurate view of the cost/spectrum trade-off in the optical backbone. This paper presents an evolutionary based multi-objective framework for optimizing network deployments with flexible-grid channel formats ranging from 40 to 400Gbits/s with varying degrees of resilience to both link and transponder failures. The multi-objective algorithm can consider all these different aspects simultaneously and highlight the degree to which cost can be traded for spectrum, and how the protection/restoration schemes influence both parameters. After benchmarking the proposed algorithm on both objectives, we use it on two reference networks to trace the non-dominated front for multiple resilience schemes, offering different levels of protection against link and/or transponder failures. We also evaluate how the channel format selection for each demand evolves when considering single-rate or bit-rate variable transponders.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Mannie, “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture,” , 2004.
  3. G. Gho and J. Kahn, “Rate-adaptive modulation and coding for optical fiber transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 12, pp. 1818–1828, June 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.
  7. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Palkopoulou, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, K. Christodoulopoulos, A. Klekamp, F. Buchali, E. Varvarigos, and I. Tomkos, “Quantifying spectrum, cost, and energy efficiency in fixed-grid and flex-grid networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B42–B51, Nov. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.
  11. A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Spectrum and transponder optimization in survivable translucent flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Ottawa, Canada, June 2012.
  12. L. Menglin, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable traffic grooming in elastic optical networks—Shared protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 903–909, Mar. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Walkowiak and M. Klinkowski, “Shared backup path protection in elastic optical networks: Modeling and optimization,” in Int. Conf. on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013.
  14. O. Rival and A. Morea, “Cost-efficiency of mixed 10-40-100Gb/s networks and elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011.
  15. K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Planning flexible optical networks under physical layer constraints,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1296–1312, Nov. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.
  17. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.
  20. V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.
  21. D. P. Roa, B. Baran, and C. A. Brizuela, “Wavelength converter allocation in optical networks: An evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach,” in Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, Dec. 2009.
  22. D. Monoyios, K. Vlachos, M. Aggelou, and I. Tomkos, “On the use of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving the impairment aware-RWA problem,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.
  23. T. Bäck, Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice. Oxford University, 1996.
  24. K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.
  26. E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Martins and M. Pascoal, “An algorithm for ranking optimal paths” [Online]. Available: www.mat.uc.pt/~marta/Publicacoes/rank_optimal.ps.gz .

2013

2012

2011

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S.

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Aggelou, M.

D. Monoyios, K. Vlachos, M. Aggelou, and I. Tomkos, “On the use of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving the impairment aware-RWA problem,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

Angelou, M.

Arribas, F. J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Bäck, T.

T. Bäck, Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice. Oxford University, 1996.

Baran, B.

D. P. Roa, B. Baran, and C. A. Brizuela, “Wavelength converter allocation in optical networks: An evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach,” in Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, Dec. 2009.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bihon, D.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Bohn, M.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Brizuela, C. A.

D. P. Roa, B. Baran, and C. A. Brizuela, “Wavelength converter allocation in optical networks: An evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach,” in Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, Dec. 2009.

Buchali, F.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

da Fonseca, V. G.

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

De Waardt, H.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Deb, K.

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Duque, R.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Eira, A.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Spectrum and transponder optimization in survivable translucent flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Ottawa, Canada, June 2012.

A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Fernandez-Palacios, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Fonseca, C. M.

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, D.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Forghieri, F.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Gho, G.

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Ip, E.

Ishida, O.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Jimenez, F.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J.

Klekamp, A.

Klinkowski, M.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Walkowiak and M. Klinkowski, “Shared backup path protection in elastic optical networks: Modeling and optimization,” in Int. Conf. on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013.

Klonidis, D.

Krummrich, P. M.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Kuschnerov, M.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Laumanns, M.

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lobato Polo, I.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Lopez, V.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture,” , 2004.

Marzo, D.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Menglin, L.

Meyarivan, T.

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Monoyios, D.

D. Monoyios, K. Vlachos, M. Aggelou, and I. Tomkos, “On the use of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving the impairment aware-RWA problem,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

Morea, A.

O. Rival and A. Morea, “Cost-efficiency of mixed 10-40-100Gb/s networks and elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011.

Mukherjee, B.

Nag, A.

Ohara, T.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Palacharla, P.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Palkopoulou, E.

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Pedro, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Spectrum and transponder optimization in survivable translucent flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Ottawa, Canada, June 2012.

Pires, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Spectrum and transponder optimization in survivable translucent flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Ottawa, Canada, June 2012.

A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Pratap, A.

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, S.

Rival, O.

O. Rival and A. Morea, “Cost-efficiency of mixed 10-40-100Gb/s networks and elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011.

Roa, D. P.

D. P. Roa, B. Baran, and C. A. Brizuela, “Wavelength converter allocation in optical networks: An evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach,” in Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, Dec. 2009.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

Santos, J.

A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Sasaki, T.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Schmuhl, D.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Sekiya, M.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Sleiffer, V.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Soumplis, P.

Spaelter, S.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

Thiele, L.

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Tomizawa, M.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

Tornatore, M.

Van den Borne, D.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Varvarigos, E.

Veljanovski, V.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Vizcaino, J. L.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Vlachos, K.

D. Monoyios, K. Vlachos, M. Aggelou, and I. Tomkos, “On the use of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving the impairment aware-RWA problem,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Walkowiak and M. Klinkowski, “Shared backup path protection in elastic optical networks: Modeling and optimization,” in Int. Conf. on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013.

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yabin, Y.

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

Yamamoto, Y.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Zitzler, E.

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: Possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 15, pp. 1129–1131, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput.

K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Zitzler, L. Thiele, M. Laumanns, C. M. Fonseca, and V. G. da Fonseca, “Performance assessment of multiobjective optimizers: An analysis and review,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.  7, no. 2, pp. 117–132, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Other

A. Eira, J. Santos, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Design of survivable flexible-grid DWDM networks with joint minimization of transponder cost and spectrum usage,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

E. Martins and M. Pascoal, “An algorithm for ranking optimal paths” [Online]. Available: www.mat.uc.pt/~marta/Publicacoes/rank_optimal.ps.gz .

J. L. Vizcaino, Y. Yabin, V. Lopez, F. Jimenez, R. Duque, and P. M. Krummrich, “Cost evaluation for flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “Spectrum and transponder optimization in survivable translucent flexible-grid optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Ottawa, Canada, June 2012.

Q. Zhang, X. Wang, P. Palacharla, M. Sekiya, and D. Bihon, “Shared mesh restoration for OTN/WDM networks using CDC-ROADMs,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 2012.

E. Mannie, “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture,” , 2004.

K. Walkowiak and M. Klinkowski, “Shared backup path protection in elastic optical networks: Modeling and optimization,” in Int. Conf. on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013.

O. Rival and A. Morea, “Cost-efficiency of mixed 10-40-100Gb/s networks and elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, D. Fonseca, F. J. Arribas, J. Fernandez-Palacios, I. Lobato Polo, D. Schmuhl, S. Spaelter, D. Marzo, and M. Bohn, “Defragmentation of fixed/flexible grid optical networks,” in Future Networks & Mobile Summit, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2013.

V. Sleiffer, D. Van den Borne, V. Veljanovski, M. Kuschnerov, M. Hirano, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, S. Jansen, and H. De Waardt, “Transmission of 448-Gb/s dual-carrier POLMUX-16QAM over 1230  km with 5 flexi-grid ROADM passes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012.

D. P. Roa, B. Baran, and C. A. Brizuela, “Wavelength converter allocation in optical networks: An evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach,” in Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Pisa, Italy, Dec. 2009.

D. Monoyios, K. Vlachos, M. Aggelou, and I. Tomkos, “On the use of multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving the impairment aware-RWA problem,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications Workshops (ICC), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

T. Bäck, Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice. Oxford University, 1996.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Shared hardware redundancy, (b) backup transponders with alternate-bit-rate restoration for demand A-E. WSS, wavelength selective switch.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Chromosome encoding and genome structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MOGA flowchart and mutation operators.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between spectrum metric and spectrum assignment.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CORONET and GBN topologies.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of MOGA and benchmark values for a test case in GBN.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Hypervolume in each generation for a test case in GBN.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Non-dominated fronts for different hardware protection schemes in GBN. TP, transponder.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Non-dominated fronts for different hardware protection schemes in CORONET. TP, transponder.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Non-dominated fronts for different backup spectrum reservation schemes in GBN.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Non-dominated fronts for different backup spectrum reservation schemes in GBN.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Non-dominated fronts with and without BRV transponders for shared and dedicated hardware protection in GBN. TP, transponder.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Non-dominated fronts with and without BRV transponders for shared and dedicated hardware protection in CORONET. TP, transponder.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Carried load per interface type for GBN with single-bit-rate transponders.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Carried load by each format with BRV transponders.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Carried load per interface type for CORONET with single-bit-rate transponders.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Carried load per interface type for CORONET with BRV transponders.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Transmission Format Properties

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1: Sharing Potential Evaluation

Tables Icon

TABLE II Solution Cost Breakdown by Hardware Protection Scheme a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( n , r ) = max ( 2 * Φ 1 ( R n r ) + Φ 1 ( B n r ) , , 2 * Φ E ( R n r ) + Φ E ( B n r ) ) ,
d N s ( f w ( d ) ) N c ( d , f w ( d ) ) N l ( p w ( d ) ) + d N s ( f b ( d ) ) N c ( d , f b ( d ) ) N l ( p b ( d ) ) sharing_potential .
min d c w b N d r ( 1 + 2 * G c w ) K r χ d c w b + n r K r β n r ,
c w b χ d c w b = 1 , d ,
ϕ e n r = ( d , c , b ) M b ( n ) c C ( e ) b F ( r ) w 2 N d r χ d c w b + d D ( n ) c w F ( r ) b F ( r ) N d r χ d c w b , e , n , r ,
β n r ( d , c , w ) M w ( n ) w F ( r ) b χ d c w b + d D ( n ) c w F ( r ) b χ d c w b Ω , n , r ,
β n r ϕ e n r , e , n , r .