Abstract

Future passive optical networks (PONs) are expected to support much larger capacity and much wider coverage. How to jointly address these two design requirements represents one of the most challenging aspects in today’s research on PONs. So far, most research efforts have been devoted to devising new architectural or technological solutions to support such stringent requirements. In particular, the technology to be used for transmission may have diverse multiplexing techniques, types of transceivers, modulation formats, and detection techniques. However, the question of which transmission technology is the most effective considering the trade-offs in terms of complexity, offered capacity, and reach is still open. In this paper, we aim at answering this question comparing the use of time division multiplexing (TDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and hybrid TDM/WDM techniques in PONs. To achieve this goal, we first categorize the main options for transmission technologies in PONs in three families: colored dense WDM (DWDM), tunable DWDM, and colorless DWDM. Then, we propose a new optimization scheme that selects the optimal transmission technology for different operational scenarios that are defined by varying the number of users, the distance to the users, and the traffic load. The choice of the passive optical components to be used at the remote node is also part of the optimization scheme given its significant impact on the choice of the transmission technology. As a result, we report and discuss which transmission technologies are the most suitable under different operational scenarios.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using downstream DPSK and upstream wavelength-shifted ASK for Rayleigh backscattering mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON migration scheme,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  5, no. 2, 7900407, Apr. 2013.

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “On the capacity of WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 552–559, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1014–1027, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Mitcsenkov, G. Paksy, and T. Cinkler, “Geography-and infrastructure-aware topology design methodology for broadband access networks (FTTX),” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  21, no. 3 pp. 253–266, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

An, F.-T.

Anderson, T.

Andrade, M. De

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1014–1027, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “On the capacity of WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 552–559, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Antony, C.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Appathurai, S.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Assi, C. M.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, and A. Shami, “Quality of service in TDM/WDM Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, Cagliari, June 2006.

Autenrieth, A.

O. Kipouridis, C. Mas Machuca, A. Autenrieth, and K. Grobe, “Street-aware infrastructure planning tool for next generation optical access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

Baekelandt, B.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Bayvel, P.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Beleffi, G. M. T.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Blache, F.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Boffi, P.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Borghesani, A.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Brenot, R.

L. Marazzi, P. Parolari, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, and M. Martinelli, “Network-embedded self-tuning cavity for WDM-PON transmitter,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 3781–3786, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Buttaboni, A.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Cannard, P.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Chanclou, P.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Chang, W.-R.

H.-T. Lin, Z.-H. Ho, H.-C. Cheng, and W.-R. Chang, “SPON: A slotted long-reach PON architecture for supporting Internet working capability,” in Proc. Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM 2009), Boston, Oct. 2009, pp. 18–21.

Chen, X.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Cheng, H.-C.

H.-T. Lin, Z.-H. Ho, H.-C. Cheng, and W.-R. Chang, “SPON: A slotted long-reach PON architecture for supporting Internet working capability,” in Proc. Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM 2009), Boston, Oct. 2009, pp. 18–21.

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using downstream DPSK and upstream wavelength-shifted ASK for Rayleigh backscattering mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON migration scheme,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  5, no. 2, 7900407, Apr. 2013.

Chowdhury, R.

B. Jaumard and R. Chowdhury, “Location and allocation of switching equipment (splitters/AWGs) in a WDM PON network,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011.

Chung, Y. C.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5 Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100 km coherent WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011, paper OTuB3.

Cinkler, T.

A. Mitcsenkov, G. Paksy, and T. Cinkler, “Geography-and infrastructure-aware topology design methodology for broadband access networks (FTTX),” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  21, no. 3 pp. 253–266, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cronin, R.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Davey, R. P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

De Ridder, T.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

de Valicourt, G.

Dhaini, A. R.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, and A. Shami, “Quality of service in TDM/WDM Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, Cagliari, June 2006.

Dosanjh, J.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Firth, R.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Ford, C.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Gavioli, G.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Genay, N.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Goix, M.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Gottwald, E.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1  Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, pp. 20–24.

Grobe, K.

O. Kipouridis, C. Mas Machuca, A. Autenrieth, and K. Grobe, “Street-aware infrastructure planning tool for next generation optical access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

Guo, H.

Gutierrez, D.

Healey, P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Ho, Z.-H.

H.-T. Lin, Z.-H. Ho, H.-C. Cheng, and W.-R. Chang, “SPON: A slotted long-reach PON architecture for supporting Internet working capability,” in Proc. Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM 2009), Boston, Oct. 2009, pp. 18–21.

Hong, X.

Hope, I.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Hu, E.

Jaumard, B.

B. Jaumard and R. Chowdhury, “Location and allocation of switching equipment (splitters/AWGs) in a WDM PON network,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011.

Johnston, L.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Jung, S. P.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5 Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100 km coherent WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011, paper OTuB3.

Kazovsky, L.

Kerr, T.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Kim, K. S.

Kipouridis, O.

O. Kipouridis, C. Mas Machuca, A. Autenrieth, and K. Grobe, “Street-aware infrastructure planning tool for next generation optical access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

Kloppe, K.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1  Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, pp. 20–24.

Kong, D.

Koratzinos, V.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Krimmel, H. G.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Landreau, J.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Lavery, D.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Lazaro, J. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Lealman, I.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Lee, K.

Legouezigou, O.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lin, H.-T.

H.-T. Lin, Z.-H. Ho, H.-C. Cheng, and W.-R. Chang, “SPON: A slotted long-reach PON architecture for supporting Internet working capability,” in Proc. Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM 2009), Boston, Oct. 2009, pp. 18–21.

Lin, J.

Maher, R.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Mallecot, F.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Marazzi, L.

Martelli, P.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Martinelli, M.

Mas Machuca, C.

O. Kipouridis, C. Mas Machuca, A. Autenrieth, and K. Grobe, “Street-aware infrastructure planning tool for next generation optical access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

Millar, D.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol.  21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Experimental upstream demonstration of a long reach wavelength-converting PON with DWDM backhaul,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2006, paper OWL.

Mitcsenkov, A.

A. Mitcsenkov, G. Paksy, and T. Cinkler, “Geography-and infrastructure-aware topology design methodology for broadband access networks (FTTX),” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  21, no. 3 pp. 253–266, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Ossieur, P.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Paksy, G.

A. Mitcsenkov, G. Paksy, and T. Cinkler, “Geography-and infrastructure-aware topology design methodology for broadband access networks (FTTX),” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  21, no. 3 pp. 253–266, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Parolari, P.

Pattavina, A.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Payne, D. B.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Payoux, F.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Poustie, A.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Prat, J.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Qiu, X. Z.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Rivers, L.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Rohde, H.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1  Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, pp. 20–24.

Savory, S.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Shami, A.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, and A. Shami, “Quality of service in TDM/WDM Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, Cagliari, June 2006.

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol.  21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Experimental upstream demonstration of a long reach wavelength-converting PON with DWDM backhaul,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2006, paper OWL.

Shrikhande, K.

Smith, D.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Smolorz, S.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1  Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, pp. 20–24.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Soila, R.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Soret, T.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

Takushima, Y.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5 Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100 km coherent WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011, paper OTuB3.

Talli, G.

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 7, pp. 2827–2834, 2006.
[CrossRef]

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km reach DWDM super PON with upstream bit rates of 2.5  Gb/s and 10  Gb/s,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Teixeira, A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Thomsen, B. C.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

Tomkos, I.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

Tornatore, M.

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Townsend, P. D.

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 7, pp. 2827–2834, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km reach DWDM super PON with upstream bit rates of 2.5  Gb/s and 10  Gb/s,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Waller, R.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Wang, H.

Watkinson, P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

Wong, E.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Wyatt, R.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

Xu, K.

Yam, S.

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using downstream DPSK and upstream wavelength-shifted ASK for Rayleigh backscattering mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON migration scheme,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  5, no. 2, 7900407, Apr. 2013.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “On the capacity of WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 552–559, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1014–1027, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y.

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Network (1)

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Long-reach optical access technologies,” IEEE Network, vol.  21, no. 5, pp. 5–11, Sept. 2007.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Using downstream DPSK and upstream wavelength-shifted ASK for Rayleigh backscattering mitigation in TDM-PON to WDM-PON migration scheme,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  5, no. 2, 7900407, Apr. 2013.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “On the capacity of WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 552–559, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1014–1027, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

A. Mitcsenkov, G. Paksy, and T. Cinkler, “Geography-and infrastructure-aware topology design methodology for broadband access networks (FTTX),” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  21, no. 3 pp. 253–266, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

M. De Andrade, A. Buttaboni, M. Tornatore, P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Pattavina, and G. Gavioli, “Design of long-reach TDM/WDM passive optical access network,” in Proc. Int. Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symp., Rome, Oct. 15–18, 2012.

Optical Seamless Access Evolution (OASE) European Project, “Requirements for European next-generation optical access networks,” , June 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.ict-oase.eu/index.php?page=148& .

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Feasibility demonstrator of 100 km reach DWDM super PON with upstream bit rates of 2.5  Gb/s and 10  Gb/s,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, and D. B. Payne, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2005.

H.-T. Lin, Z.-H. Ho, H.-C. Cheng, and W.-R. Chang, “SPON: A slotted long-reach PON architecture for supporting Internet working capability,” in Proc. Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM 2009), Boston, Oct. 2009, pp. 18–21.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1  Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, pp. 20–24.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. T. Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008.

B. Jaumard and R. Chowdhury, “Location and allocation of switching equipment (splitters/AWGs) in a WDM PON network,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011.

O. Kipouridis, C. Mas Machuca, A. Autenrieth, and K. Grobe, “Street-aware infrastructure planning tool for next generation optical access networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “Experimental upstream demonstration of a long reach wavelength-converting PON with DWDM backhaul,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2006, paper OWL.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Demonstration of 10  Gbit/s colorless coherent PON incorporating tunable DS-DBR lasers and low-complexity parallel DSP,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, paper PDP5B.10.

P. Chanclou, F. Payoux, T. Soret, N. Genay, R. Brenot, F. Blache, M. Goix, J. Landreau, O. Legouezigou, and F. Mallecot, “Demonstration of RSOA-based remote modulation at 2.5 and 5  Gbit/s for WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, Mar. 2007, paper OWD1.

D. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, and A. Poustie, “Colourless 10  Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, paper 8.6.3.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Generation of 5 Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100 km coherent WDM PON,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011, paper OTuB3.

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, and A. Shami, “Quality of service in TDM/WDM Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications, Cagliari, June 2006.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Architecture example of an LR-PON with two types of RN: (1) primary RN (RN1) that connects directly to the OLT through a feeder fiber and (2) secondary RN (RN2) that connects to the primary RN and, on the other side, connects directly to the ONUs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layered graph used in the optimization tool.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flowchart of the proposed optimization scheme.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optimal families of transmission technologies for different network scenarios in tree topology: (a) 64 ONUs, (b) 128 ONUs, and (c) 256 ONUs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE II Chosen Combination of Remote Nodes (RNs)

Tables Icon

TABLE III Total Number of Wavelengths

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min { i W j T ( C i , j λ i , j b i , j + α i , j b i , j ) } ,
S = 3.5 log 2 ( n ) ,