Abstract

High-speed, submicrosecond-latency, large-port-count (thousands) optical packet switches (OPSs) for intercluster communication networks can become a key element in the deployment of cloud-oriented large-scale data centers. In this work we numerically investigate the performance of a large-port-count wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) OPS based on a Spanke-type architecture with highly distributed control. We analyze it under a data center traffic model to determine its suitability for this type of environment. Results indicate that the proposed architecture can be scaled to 4096 ports while providing packet loss below 10−6 and latency under 1 μs, with a total switching capacity over 55  Tbits/s. Additionally, we propose and analyze two WDM OPS architectures. The first one detects and processes small and large-sized Ethernet packets with two parallel switches. The second architecture includes multiple receivers to decrease packet losses and latency while using very limited electronic buffers. Results indicate that both techniques can lead to substantial improvements. In terms of packet loss and latency, they allow up to 40% higher input load with respect to the original WDM OPS architecture.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Calabretta, “FPGA based label processor for low-latency and large port count optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 19, pp. 3173–3181, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

1994 (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, “On a class of rearrangeable switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 1579–1618, 1971.

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Akella, V.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Anand, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

Andriolli, N.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Barros, L. A.

L. A. Barros and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009, pp. 1–107.

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Bergman, K.

Bernasconi, P.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Biberman, A.

Calabretta, N.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

N. Calabretta, “FPGA based label processor for low-latency and large port count optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 19, pp. 3173–3181, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Castoldi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Centelles, R. Pueyo

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Cerutti, I.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Chaiken, R.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Chao, H. J.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Di Lucente, S.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Dorren, H. J. S.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Greenberg, A.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Gripp, J.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Grzybowski, R.

Heidemann, J.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Hemenway, R.

Hölzle, U.

L. A. Barros and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009, pp. 1–107.

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kandula, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Kao, Y.-H.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Kodi, A. K.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

Kurumida, J.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Lai, C. P.

Lee, B. G.

LeGrange, J. D.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Leland, W. E.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, pp. 1777–1789, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Louri, A.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

Luijten, R.

Luo, J.

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Maltz, D. A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Minkenberg, C.

Nazarathy, Y.

Neilson, D. T.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Opferman, D. C.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, “On a class of rearrangeable switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 1579–1618, 1971.

Papadopoulos, C.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Patel, A.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Potter, A.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Proietti, R.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Ramirez, J.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

Raponi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Raz, O.

Rohit, A.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Sengupta, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Shacham, A.

Simsarian, J. E.

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R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

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S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Willinger, W.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
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Wilson, D. V.

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K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

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K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

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R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yin, Y.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yu, R.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

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J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

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Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

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K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

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R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

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J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

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R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

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